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There were a number of snowplows out there with a hand-pump hydraulic unit similar to a bottle jack or Porta-Power that we would convert for a few dollars.

Use "mechanical advantage" that hydraulics can offer. 1300 p.s.i. applied to one-square-inch of piston area will result in 1300 pounds of force from that piston.

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I have seen pumps that are internally regulated between 900 psi and 2000 psi, so there is some variance. A lot of the newer GM pumps are around 2.0 GPM, with the truck pumps largely being 3.0-3.5+ GPM. This link should get you started:

I recently had to rebuild a GM/Toyota pump (from a 2004-2007 Cadillac CTS-V) to match the volume requirements and pressure limitations of the rack in my Jaguar. I called A-1 Cardone, a company that remanufactures power steering pumps, and their techs were able to give me the PS volume and pressure of their rebuilt units, which in theory, should be about the same as the stock units. With that information, I was able to go to a salvage yard and buy an old pump to tear apart for parts.

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A system of several mechanisms working together, the power steering pump converts energy produced by a car"s engine into hydraulic power, which it uses to add the torque to the movements of the steering wheel.

The power steering pump is located near the pulley driven by the engine accessory belt, or under the steering wheel. The steering assist is mainly to assist the driver to adjust the direction of the car, and to reduce the strength of the driver to turn the steering wheel.

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The FN4 power steering pump is designed for connection to the air compressor or a power take-off on the engine. The shaft connects by means of a cross-slotted disk or spline toothing. It can be driven by either a gear or belt. For these cases, an anti-friction bearing is used for the drive shaft. The ball bearing needed for this can be integrated into the housing.

The rotor set is comprised of the rotor, ten radially-guided blades as well as the cam ring with two symmetrically arranged suction and pressure zones. The fixed geometric delivery volume of the pump is defined by the design of the cam ring.

The conveyed volume flow is limited to a defined value by the integrated volume flow control. The maximum system pressure must be limited by a pressure control valve installed on the pump or in the system. If required, a pressure level of up to 200 bar is available as a special version.

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To many, steering pump is just some magical black box that supposedly somehow makes our driving trips much more enjoyable. But how does a power steering pump works exactly?

If you clicked into this article, I bet you want to know more than just the surface. We can help with that. Today, we’re going to dive deep into the world of mechanics, particularly on the inner workings of a steering pump.

In a hydraulic power steering system, we have the steering rack and the steering pump. These two components are like Batman and Robin, Thor and Mjolnir, peanut butter and jelly – basically inseparable. They work together to give us the ability to steer our car, and at the same time, making it easy to do so.

In formal terminology, power steering pump is a centrifugal vane type hydraulic pump that pressurizes steering fluid through high speed rotations in order to create a pressure differential that translates into “power assist” for your car’s steering system.

It’s essentially just a water pump, except with steering fluid. It spins like crazy, pressurizes steering fluid like crazy and then send them to the rest of the steering system so that we can steer like crazy.

Generally speaking, steering rack gives us the actual trajectory changes on our car tyres, meaning the ability to steer our car. On the other hand, steering pump is the one responsible for making the steering wheel feel “light” and easy to turn when we steer.

The steering pump has the size of about a coconut, and you can usually find it attached next to your car’s engine. If you want to have a look, just follow along the engine belt and you will eventually see it.

Although power steering pump is metaphorically known as the “heart” of our power steering system, it is just a drop of water in the ocean. There are a myriad of other mechanisms surrounding and supporting it so that the whole system ticks. With that being said, it can get very complicated very fast, especially if one is unfamiliar with the power steering system as a whole.

In that spirit, we’ve simplified “how power steering pump works” into three sections to ease you through the process. These sections are (i) before steering pump, (ii) within steering pump, and (iii) after steering pump.

If you open up your car hood, you will find a (usually) yellow-ish container that has the word “power steering fluid” written on the cap. It is the container where we pour our steering fluid into.

The sole purpose of this tank is just to hold the steering fluid and supplies them to the steering pump through a set of rubber hoses. When we are not using the fluid, it rests in the reservoir. When we need the steering fluid, it gets sucked out of this reservoir into wherever it needs to go.

Now, we need to get the steering pump spinning first. In order to crank it, we need a continuous supply of power going to the pump, and that comes from none other than the car engine itself.

Our car engine produces power by igniting petrol-air mixture with electrical sparks. When the petrol-air mixture explodes inside the engine, it produces energy that pushes the engine piston up and down. And because our engine piston is mechanically connected to the crankshaft, the crankshaft harvests these energy and the crankshaft itself starts to rotate.

Finally, we put an engine belt around this rotating crankshaft, and connects it firmly to the pulley on the steering pump.When we start our car, the engine belt pulls onto the steering pump pulley and the steering pump starts spinning.

At this stage, we got the steering pump spinning, and the steering fluid readily available to the pump. The next step, is to pressurize the steering fluid.

Here comes the exciting part. We will now take a peek at the core of a steering pump to help understand how this majestic device creates high pressure fluid.

The picture above is what you would typically see inside a power steering pump. Granted, not all steering pump looks like this, and there are other intricacies here and there that we took out, but let’s keep it real simple here. There are only 3 distinct items that you really need to pay attention to, namely the (i) housing, (ii) rotor, and (iii) vane.

The rotor is this solid metal block that has only two distinct features: it has a hollow hole in the middle, and then some cavities on the exterior. Both serve a different purpose.

The center hole connects directly to the steering pump pulley through another cylindrical metal. So if you can imagine, when the steering pump pulley is rotating, the rotor itself will consequently rotates as well, and hence the name “rotor”.

Remember the cavities on the exterior? These tiny pocket of holes are where the vanes will rests. They act as a railway for the vanes to be moving in and out. When the steering pump is not rotating, they rests closer to the center (see left picture below). When the rotor rotates, all the vanes get pushed outward and against the pump housing (see right picture below).

Well, it’s like playing with a carousel at the kid’s playground. You can find a comfortable place to sit on the carousel, and then get a friend to spin you like crazy! The faster he spins, the more you will feel like you are being thrown outward. If he spins hard enough, you may just end up amongst the mud!

Similarly in the power steering pump, all the vanes will be pushed outwards against the pump housing. But that’s not all. Imagine the same centrifugal force, but with engine RPM, which is typically measured in the thousands per minute. The vanes are pushed so strongly against the pump housing, that it starts to form tiny chambers which traps the steering fluid. In our example, there are exactly 11 of the tiny chambers.

As the rotor rotates in a clockwise fashion, the tiny chambers follow along (together with the steering fluid inside of it!). Chamber No.1 will move from it’s original position, into Chamber No.2, then Chamber No.3, and so on and so forth at an incredible speed until we switch off the engine.

If you look closely, the pump housing is not geometrically round, they are designed to be oval in shape, purposefully. When the rotor is placed directly at the center, you will notice that the bottom part of the groove is significantly bigger than the top part of the groove.

When the pump continues to rotate, the steering fluid are carried around the oval groove like a merry-go-round. Because of the eccentric oval shape, the steering fluid moves from a large area, and gets squeezed into an increasingly smaller space. If we look to Physics, we know that when the area decreases, pressure increases. Engineers know what’s up. But hey, don’t take my word for it, I’ll even prove it to you.

First, you blow a balloon until a decent size, then you tie a knot around the openings to seal the air inside. As you squeeze the balloon, the space inside the balloon reduces. With nowhere to escape, the same amount of air gets crammed into a tighter confinement which increases the air pressure. If you squeeze it hard enough, it will reach a point where the air pressure is greater than the strength of the balloon and it finally bursts.

Air acts just like any other fluid, which includes steering fluid. Given the same amount of fluid, when you reduce the area, the fluid pressure will increase. And that is exactly why they designed the cam ring to be oval instead of a perfect round shape.

We talked about how these tiny chambers continually spin the steering fluid into a tighter space to increase the pressure. After that, the high pressure steering fluid eventually exits out of the steering pump through the pressure control valve.

For those who are familiar with Hydraulic Power Steering: What it is and How it Works, you would have a very good idea of how the story ends. For those who don’t, here’s how it basically goes down.

The high pressure steering fluid leaves the steering pump, and into the steering rack. Basically speaking, the steering rack is divided into two hydraulic chambers, the left and the right side.

When the steering fluid enters the two hydraulic chambers, they are distributed in a way that one of the hydraulic chamber in the steering rack gets more steering fluid than the other. If the left chamber gets more fluid, it becomes stronger than the right chamber. And guess what happens? The steering rack pushes to the right thanks to the difference in fluid pressure. The reverse is true when you want to turn to the left.

I sincerely hope that I did justice in dissecting the inner workings of a steering pump and hopefully it helps us better appreciate the marvel of engineering that goes into our car.

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A liquid reservoir powers hydraulic steering pump manufacturers at neutral pressure (atmospheric pressure), then this latter compresses it to reach an outlet pressure at the order of 60-80 bars. If you opt for belt power steering systems, this is your lucky day as we bring you some of the best power steering pulleys at preferential wholesale prices. We also have some pumps with integrated power steering pump reservoirs. This type of steering pump connects to the rack through a high-pressure steering pump hose.

There are two main types of hydraulic steering pump manufacturers. The hydraulic power steering pumps are considered as an old version of steering pumps, and they need to be equipped with the belt to run properly. Electric power steering pumps, on the other hand, don"t require any accessories circuit. As the name suggests, they have an electric motor to pressurize the steering fluid.

You should replace your power steering pump when observing any of the following signs: growls in the direction, the steering system no longer works, or fluid leakage in the power steering system. Once you identify that your steering pump is faulty, you can search for a new hydraulic steering pump manufacturers in our collections. We are sure you will be pleased with the affordable cost of our hydraulic steering pump manufacturers.

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Available for petrol and diesel as well as hybrid and electric vehicles. The level of assist can be varied depending on the vehicle speed and rate of steer, giving a tailored steering feel and substantial fuel savings over traditional hydraulic power steering. Without the need for a direct connection to the engine an EPHS pump can also ease packaging issues as it can be positioned virtually anywhere in the engine bay, or in any other convenient location with a connection to the steering rack.

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Pressure, and the term “pressure capacity” are widely misunderstood in the power steering world. There is also a lot of misinformation about how pressure works, what it controls, and why you should be thinking about changing the pressure capacity in a power steering pump. We’ll deep dive into pressure in a later post, but for now, let’s look at the basics of pressure capacity and pressure output.

Pressure capacity simply refers to the maximum pressure the power steering pump is allowed to build. Most factory pumps have a pressure capacity set to around 1200 psi. That doesn’t mean that they are always operating at this pressure, it only means that their maximum pressure output is 1200 psi. A pump set to 1800 psi capacity therefore means that the pump is now allowed to build more pressure, if needed.

Here is where the internet is largely wrong about pressure. Pressure is not a constant output – it is variable. This means the pressure output of a pump is constantly changing as you drive. The pump builds pressure in response to hydraulic load on the steering box (or rack and pinion). So even if you are running at high rpms, but going straight down the road, the pump is barely building any pressure. It doesn’t need to because you, as a driver, don’t need any steering assist.

Compare that to when you throw the vehicle into a very tight, hard corner. The pump pressure output spikes in this condition – again, it is responding to increased hydraulic load on the steering gear, since you are trying to turn the wheels while there is also a lot of grip on the front of the car. The pump pressure spikes so that you maintain steering assist in the hard corner. Once you straighten the vehicle out, the pressure backs off again.

We hear A LOT from people who want to lower their pump’s factory pressure capacity from 1200 psi into the 800 psi range “because my rack can’t handle the higher pressures.”

Any normal OEM-grade steering rack was designed to handle pressures that far exceed 800 psi. If indeed you’re buying a rack that can’t handle even standard factory pressures, then I would look closely at the quality of rack you are purchasing, it may not be a very good investment. And as I just mentioned above, the pump is not always outputting it’s maximum pressure. The pump is already self-regulating it’s pressure output. The pump would only output 800 psi if the rack actually needs 800 psi as you are cornering.

With today’s restomod and protouring builds and custom vehicle work, it’s a very common to see vehicles that actually benefit from have a pump with a higher pressure capacity. Why would this be necessary or recommended, though?

Vehicle changes, along with driving conditions, change how much force is being applied to the steering gear. Vehicle changes like wider, grippier front tires means that more force is needed to turn the tires. Therefore increasing tire width, changing compounds, dialing in your suspension for better cornering, castor/camber adjustments, adding front downforce or adding a hydroboost system are all changes that mean the pump HAS TO output more pressure to overcome the increase in cornering grip.

The same goes for driving conditions. If you’re street driving, the cornering loads aren’t as high as if you take your car to the local racetrack for track days and start driving hot laps. The hard corning means the pump is outputting more pressure in corners to ensure you’re getting steering assist.

Now that we know vehicle changes + driving conditions can influence pump pressure, you can understand that factory pumps aren’t always up for the job. Even C5 and C6 Corvette pumps had standard tuning of regular passenger cars – they were tuned for street driving. Some vehicles simply need a pump tuned to handle the significant increases in corner grip – which means the pump needs to be able to output higher-than-factory pressure at times.

If you’re still not sure how this directly applies to your vehicle setup, please don’t hesitate to contact one of our Sales & Technical Support Representatives, who will be happy to talk through your specific setup and make power steering recommendations. You can also fill out our online Custom Pump Submission form to get pump recommendations emailed you to.