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Pretty self explanatory, P1276 is an electrical fault involving the pump and control network for the PSM and ABS systems. Take a good look at the wiring around the PSM hydraulic unit, I think there is a TSB on moisture entering the harness connector at the PSM.

Hello I have a 2010 cayenne and I have the same issue but I think I know what will be the main problem, a couple weeks I notice water on the carpet at the passenger side I thought that it was the condensation mustuire coming from the ac under the passenger side dash but after a exhausting search I found out that the problem comes from the ducts full of mudge exactly located it on top of the tire and under the abs pump I cleared it from leafs and all kind a dust literally 2 litters of water cane out problem fix! Finally but I’m suspecting because of that the electrical connections may become wet causing the 1276 code anyway I hope this help and probably this week I will dissemble the whale thing in other to check it if y fix it I’ll get back with more details good luck guys

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Your Porsche will identify and store trouble codes within a series of on-board control modules. On-Board-Diagnostic (OBD2) trouble codes are one of the ways to identify mechanical problems with your Porsche car or SUV systems. Listed below are the most commonly seen powertrain fault codes on Porsche vehicles.

Your Porsche, like every car built since 1996, has an OBD2 compliant fault output system. The goal of the OBD2 compliance is to map problems, which the cars onboard diagnostic system has identified, into a common fault definition that is used by multiple manufacturers.

Extreme caution should be used before assuming you have the answer by reading a DTC fault code. We have an article that covers how to interpret the codes that you read from your Porsche here. We recommend you seek out the diagnostic skills of a trained professional at one of our recommended Porsche specialists – an accurate diagnosis typically saves you money and hassle.

As you can see from above, there are essentially two types of code. Those that are universally accepted and those that are specific to Porsche. Going a little deeper, the Porsche specific codes are different from chassis to chassis and different between the models within a chassis range. That could mean a Porsche specific fault code seen on a ‘07 911 could well have a slightly different meaning to the same fault code when seen on a 2020 Macan. Again, the code is a clue and not the complete answer.

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The ABS, short for anti-lock braking system, is a safety feature in Porsche Cayenne which prevents the wheels from locking up during braking. This makes it possible to maintain steerability and directional stability even when braking hard, allowing the driver to avoid obstacles. If the ABS light illuminates in the instrument cluster of Cayenne, it means the anti-lock braking system has malfunctioned.

The ABS light comes on in the dashboard of Porsche Cayenne when one or more of the wheel speed sensors have malfunctioned, brake fluid is too low, the fuse is blown or the relay is bad, tire pressure is low, or if the ABS module has developed a defect.

Porsche Cayenne has an ABS sensor at each wheel hub which measures the speed of the respective wheel and transmits the information to the ABS control unit. If a sensor develops a defect and sends inaccurate or no speed information, the ABS light illuminates in the instrument cluster.

Bad wheel speed sensor is one of the leading causes of ABS warning light in Cayenne, as they are exposed to harsh conditions due to their close proximity to the wheels.

It isn’t usually possible to identify the faulty ABS sensor in Cayenne by physical inspection. The only most reliable method of diagnosing an ABS speed sensor is by connecting an OBDII scanner to your vehicle and reading out the error codes. The error code also makes it easy to determine which sensor is affected. The faulty sensor must be replaced to resolve the issue.

It is possible the sensor is functioning properly in your Cayenne, but the signal is interrupted due to damaged wire or corroded connector. Before replacing the sensor, the wiring and connectors of the affected sensor should be physically inspected for any signs of damage or corrosion.

Excessively low level of brake fluid can trigger ABS light in Cayenne. Check the fluid level in the brake fluid reservoir, the level should sit near the high marking on the reservoir.

In case the brake fluid level is low, topping it off should turn off the ABS warning light in Cayenne. But it is important to further investigate the reason for low brake fluid level. The three common causes of low brake fluid are worn brake pads, worn rotors, and a leak in the system. Check the condition of the brake pads and rotors, also see if there is any sign of fluid leak under your vehicle and on the wheel hubs.

The ABS pump, also called Hydraulic Control Unit (HCU), consists of an electronic and a mechanical-hydraulic part. When you brake hard at high speed and the wheels lock, the hydraulic part of the unit actuates the valves to reduce hydraulic pressure to the brake at the affected wheels. A malfunction in the ABS pump can cause the ABS light to illuminate in Cayenne, and a fault code is stored in the memory. Connect a diagnostic device to your vehicle to read the code.

Low tire pressure in one of the wheels of Porsche Cayenne can cause the ABS light to turn on. The diameter of the wheel is reduced when its tire is underinflated, this causes the wheel to spin faster than other wheels in the vehicle. When the speed difference between the wheels is detected by the control module, an ABS fault code is triggered for the speed sensor of the wheel with low tire pressure.

When the ABS light illuminates in the instrument cluster of Cayenne, the ABS system is disabled and the braking system acts like older traditional braking system. The braking pressure from the master cylinder to the brake calipers is undiminished. What this means is, you can brake normally with moderate braking in dry conditions. But in case of wet or snowy conditions, or when braking hard, you may lose steerability of the vehicle. Therefore, when the ABS light is on, drive with extreme caution and fix the issue as soon as possible.

Resetting the ABS light in Cayenne without solving the underlying issue may not help, as the warning light will turn back on when the system again detects the fault. The light should disappear automatically after fixing the issue. If it doesn’t turn off immediately, driving your vehicle for a few miles should help.

The proper way to reset the ABS light in Cayenne is by clearing the codes with an OBDII scanner. If the warning light doesn’t turn off automatically after fixing the issue, you will have to do it manually by connecting a diagnostic device and then deleting all the error codes related to the ABS system.

If you don’t have a diagnostic device, it may be possible to reset the ABS light in Cayenne by disconnecting the battery for a few minutes. Remove the cable from the negative terminal of the battery first, then from the positive terminal. With the battery disconnected, press the horn button a few times and turn on the headlights to drain out all the residual electricity from the system. After about 15 minutes, reconnect the battery in reverse order: positive cable first, then negative cable.

Since Porsche Cayenne is equipped with on-board diagnostics (OBD), a fault diagnosis can provide initial indications of where the malfunction is located.

To begin troubleshooting, you must first connect the diagnostic tool to your Cayenne. The OBDII connector is usually located under the dashboard. With the tool connected, turn on the ignition. Most diagnostic devices then ask for some information about the vehicle. It is important that you enter this 100% correctly, otherwise the result of the search may be inaccurate. In addition to the vehicle make, model, and engine type, you usually also have to type in the Vehicle Identification Number (VIN). Since some OBD codes are manufacturer-specific, the scanner will be able to give you more accurate information if you enter more details about your Cayenne.

There are many reasons why the ABS light is turned on in your Porsche Cayenne. To pinpoint the cause, you must use a diagnostic tool and scan for codes. For example, if one of the speed sensors has failed, the scanner will tell you exactly which wheel sensor is causing the problem.

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Mechanical Problem in Hydraulic Control System of A/T Clutch Pressure Control Solenoid Valve Assemblies A and B,or Problem in the Hydraulic Control System

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With optional Porsche Entry & Drive, you can leave your car key in your pocket. As soon as you grab the door handle, or your hand nears the Crest on the front luggage compartment lid or the logos on the rear, Porsche Entry & Drive checks the access code stored in the key. If this is correct, the door or luggage compartment lid unlocks. The engine can then be started and switched off using the electronic ignition starter switch.

¹ The Porsche Entry & Drive system uses state-of-the-art technology. However, it cannot be completely ruled out that the key’s wireless encryption code is intercepted and used to open or steal the vehicle.

The Sports steering wheel with three-spoke design is lightweight and functional. The small centre pad and the decorative ring encircling the Porsche Crest – both derived from the steering wheel of the 918 Spyder – reinforce its sporty character. In conjunction with PDK, the Sports steering wheel features two alloyed gearshift paddles offering particularly short shift throws.

Specially designed for Porsche and optimally adapted to the specific interior acoustic of the 718 Boxster and 718 Cayman: the optional surround sound system from BOSE®. In short: you’re always at the heart of things in the 718 models.

Porsche Connect - connecting you to your Porsche and your Porsche to the world. Built into the My Porsche app, Porsche Connect adds numerous services to the existing range of digital functions of your 718 model. Navigate to your destinations in the best way possible, synchronise personal contacts and addresses and access your calendar directly via the Porsche Communication Management (PCM). Porsche Connect is your smart co-pilot for everyday life, ensuring a unique sports car experience. Before, during and after the journey.

Thanks to Real-time Traffic Information you’ll always be on the fastest route. As a component of the navigation and infotainment services, online navigation has the advantage of accessing map material which is updated daily, while at the same time taking into account all the relevant traffic reports in real time. Route planning via Porsche Communication Management (PCM), however, does not require a data connection and is available at all times.

Regardless of whether you’re discovering new places with your Porsche or exploring your local neighbourhood. All the information about points of interest, such as restaurants, petrol filling stations and hotels, is directly accessible using the Porsche Communication Management (PCM) Finder. As well as the address and contact details, reviews by other visitors are also displayed, provided a data connection has been established.

With Porsche Connect you can use numerous apps on your iPhone via Porsche Communication Management (PCM). With the connection via Apple CarPlay, apps such as phone, music or news, can be operated easily and safely while on the move.

The Porsche Dynamic Light System (PDLS), which includes expressive four-point daytime running lights, headlight cleaning system and dynamic range control, is available as an option. The dynamic cornering light function swivels the main headlights towards the inside of a bend, so as to light up more of the road at tight bends and turns. In short: the road ahead is illuminated the moment you start to corner.

Available as an option in conjunction with Porsche Doppelkupplung (PDK), this system regulates the speed of your 718 fully independently based on the distance from the vehicle in front. Radar sensors in the front apron scan the road ahead.

*Data determined in accordance with the Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP) as required by law. You can find more information on WLTP at www.porsche.com/wltp. For Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) range and Equivalent All Electric Range (EAER) figures are determined with the battery fully charged, using a combination of both battery power and fuel.

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The Porsche 911 (pronounced Nine Eleven or in German: Neunelfer) is a two-door 2+2 high performance rear-engined sports car introduced in September 1964 by Porsche AG of Stuttgart, Germany. It has a rear-mounted flat-six engine and originally a torsion bar suspension. The car has been continuously enhanced through the years but the basic concept has remained unchanged.air-cooled until the introduction of the 996 series in 1998.

The 911 has been raced extensively by private and factory teams, in a variety of classes. It is among the most successful competition cars. In the mid-1970s, the naturally aspirated 911 Carrera RSR won world championship races including Targa Florio and the 24 Hours of Daytona. The 911-derived 935 turbo also won the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1979. Porsche won the World Championship for Makes in 1976, 1977, 1978, and 1979 with 911-derived models.

Although Porsche has used internal code numbers for each series of the 911, all models have been marketed and sold as 911s. The model series and associated internal codes are as follows:

The 911 traces its roots to sketches drawn by Ferdinand "Butzi" Porsche in 1959.356, the company"s first model. The new car made its public debut at the 1963 Frankfurt Motor ShowGerman: Internationale Automobil-Ausstellung).

It originally was designated as the "Porsche 901" (901 being its internal project number). A total of 82 cars were built as which were badged as 901s.Peugeot protested on the grounds that in France it had exclusive rights to car names formed by three numbers with a zero in the middle. Instead of selling the new model with a different name in France, Porsche changed the name to 911. Internally, the cars" part numbers carried on the prefix 901 for years.

The first models of the 911 had a rear-mounted 130 hp (97 kW)flat-6 engine, in the "boxer" configuration like the 356, the engine is air-cooled and displaces 1,991 cc (2.0 L) as compared to the 356"s four-cylinder, 1,582 cc (1.6 L) unit. The car had four seats although the rear seats were small, thus it is usually called a 2+2 rather than a four-seater (the 356 was also a 2+2). A four or five-speed "Type 901" manual transmission was available. The styling was largely penned by Ferdinand "Butzi" Porsche, son of Ferdinand "Ferry" Porsche. Butzi Porsche initially came up with a notchback design with proper space for seating two rear passengers but Ferry Porsche insisted that the 356"s successor was to use its fastback styling. 7 prototypes were built based on Butzi Porsche"s original design and were internally called the Porsche 754 T7.Erwin Komenda, the leader of the Porsche car body construction department who initially objected, was also involved later in the design.

In 1966, Porsche introduced the more powerful 911S with Type 901/02 engine having a power output of 160 PS (120 kW; 160 hp). Forged aluminum alloy wheels from Fuchsfelge, with a 5-spoke design, were offered for the first time. In motorsport at the same time, the engine was developed into the Type 901/20 and was installed in the mid-engine 904 and 906 with an increased power output of 210 PS (150 kW; 210 hp), as well as fuel injected Type 901/21 installed in later variants of the 906 and 910 with a power output of 220 PS (160 kW; 220 hp).

In August 1967, the A series went into production with dual brake circuits and widened (5.5J-15) wheels still fitted with Pirelli Cinturato 165HR15 CA67 tyres.,Targa (meaning "plate" in Italianstainless steel-clad roll bar, as automakers believed that proposed rollover safety requirements by the US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) would make it difficult for fully open convertibles to meet regulations for sale in the US, an important market for the 911. The name "Targa" came from the Targa Florio sports car road race in Sicily, Italy in which Porsche had several victories until 1973. The last win in the subsequently discontinued event was scored with a 911 Carrera RS against prototypes entered by Ferrari and Alfa Romeo. The road-going Targa was equipped with a removable roof panel and a removable plastic rear window (although a fixed glass version was offered from 1968).

With power and torque increase, the 2.4-litre cars also got a newer, stronger transmission, identified by its Porsche type number 915. Derived from the transmission in the 908 race car, the 915 did away with the 901 transmission"s "dog-leg" style first gear arrangement, opting for a traditional H pattern with first gear up to the left, second gear underneath first, etc. The E series had the unusual oil filler behind the right side door, with the dry sump oil tank relocated from behind the right rear wheel to the front of it in an attempt to move the center of gravity slightly forward for better handling. An extra oil filler/inspection flap was located on the rear wing, for this reason it became known as an "Oil Klapper", "Ölklappe" or "Vierte Tür (4th door)".

RS stands for Rennsport in German, meaning race sport. The Carrera name was reintroduced from the 356 Carrera which had itself been named after Porsche"s class victories in the Carrera Panamericana races in Mexico in the 1950s. The RS was developed to meet motorsport homologation requirements. Compared to a standard 911S, the Carrera 2.7 RS had a larger engine (2,687 cc) developing 210 PS (150 kW; 210 hp) with Bosch (Kugelfischer) mechanical fuel injection, revised and stiffened suspension, a "ducktail" rear spoiler, larger brakes, wider rear wheels and rear fenders, to fit 185/70VR15 & 215/60VR15 Pirelli Cinturato CN36 tyres. In RS Touring form it weighed 1,075 kg (2,370 lb), in Sport Lightweight form it was about 100 kg (220 lb) lighter, the saving coming from thin gauge steel used for parts of the body shell and also the use of thinner glass. In total, 1,580 units were made, and qualified for the FIA Group 4 class. 49 Carrera RSR cars were built with 2,808 cc (2.8 L) engines rated at 300 PS (220 kW; 300 hp).

In 1974, Porsche developed the Carrera RS 3.0 with mechanical fuel injection rated at 230 PS (170 kW; 230 hp). Its price was almost twice that of the 2.7 RS, but it offered racing capability. The chassis was largely similar to that of the 1973 Carrera RSR and the braking system was from the 917 racing car. The use of thinner metal plate panels and a minimalist interior enabled its weight to be reduced to around 900 kg (2,000 lb).

The Carrera RSR 3.0 was sold to racing teams and scored wins in several major sports car races of the mid-1970s. Also, a prototype Carrera RSR Turbo (with 2.1-litre engine due to a 1.4x equivalency formula) came second at the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1974 and won several major races, a significant event in that its engine would form the basis of many future Porsche attempts in sports car racing. This, and the earlier 917, was Porsche"s commitment to turbocharger applications in its cars.

The Carrera 2.7 model built for all markets, except for the United States, used the 210 PS (150 kW; 210 hp) RS 911/83 engine with Bosch mechanical fuel injection pump from the 1973 Carrera RS. These Carrera 2.7 MFI models were built from 1974 until 1976 and were mechanically identical to the 1973 Carrera RS. The Carrera 2.7 model produced for the North American markets, often referred to as the Carrera 2.7 CIS, was powered by the same 2.7-litre engine as the 911S which produced 175 PS (129 kW; 173 hp). The initial Carrera 2.7 models had the same welded-on rear RS flares, before switching to the SC stamped style rear flares during the middle of the 1974 production year. The Carrera 2.7 coupés weighed in at 1,075 kg (2,370 lb), the same weight as the 1973 Carrera RS Touring.

The Carrera 2.7 was replaced by the Carrera 3.0 for the 1976 model year, except for a special run of 113 1976 Carrera 2.7 MFI coupés were built for the German market featuring the 911/83 RS engine, with an additional 20 narrow-bodied 1976 Carrera MFI 2.7 Targas being supplied to the Belgian Gendarmerie. The 1976 Carrera 2.7 MFI Sondermodells were the last mechanically fuel injected 911 produced by Porsche and still featured the 1973 RS engine.

For the 1976 model year, the 912E was produced for the U.S. market. This was a 4-cylinder version of the 911 in the same manner as the 912 that had last been produced in 1969. It used the I-series chassis powered by the Volkswagen 2.0 engine also used in the Porsche 914 for 1973 through 1975 model years. 2,099 units were produced. The 912E was replaced by the front-engine Porsche 924 for the 1977 model year.

For the 1976 model year, Porsche introduced the Carrera 3.0 with wide rear flares, optional whaletail, and a variety of other luxury options. It was available in all markets except North America. The Carrera 3.0 was fitted with a variation of the 930 Turbo"s 2994 cc engine (minus the turbocharger). The engine (dubbed the 930/02) featured K-Jetronic CIS. It developed 200 PS (150 kW; 200 hp) in contrast to the older Carrera 2.7 MFI model"s 210 PS (150 kW; 210 hp). The crankcase and gearbox housing were made of aluminium rather than magnesium for improved reliability. Magnesium cases were reviled for thermal expansion/contraction issues as engines grew in displacement and heat generation also increased.

For the 1975 model year, Porsche introduced the first production turbocharged 911. Although called the 930 Turbo (930 being its internal type number) in Europe, it was marketed as the 930 Turbo Carrera in North America. The body shape incorporated wide wheel-arches to accommodate the wide 205/50R15 & 225/50R15 Pirelli P7 tyres, and a large rear spoiler often known as a "whale tail" on the early cars (modified from the original 1974 IROC design). They were initially fitted with a 3.0-litre engine 260 PS (190 kW; 260 hp) and four-speed manual transmission.

Production of the first 400 units qualified the 930 for FIA Group 4 competition. With the racing version called the Porsche 934 of 1976 participating at the 24 Hours of Le Mans and other races including battles with the BMW 3.0 CSL "Batmobile". The FIA Group 5 version called Porsche 935 evolved from the 934. Fitted with a slope nose or "slant nose", the 500+ PS car was campaigned in 1976 by the factory, winning the world championship title. Private teams went on to win many races, like Le Mans in 1979, and continued to compete successfully with the car well into the 1980s until the FIA and IMSA rules were changed.

For the 1978 model year, Porsche revised the 930 with a larger 3.3-litre turbocharged engine with intercooler rated at 300 PS (220 kW; 300 hp). To fit the intercooler a newly designed "tea-tray" tail spoiler replaced the earlier whale tail spoiler. Porsche dropped the "Carrera" nomenclature for the North American markets and the car was simply called the Porsche 911 Turbo worldwide. The larger engine helped reduce some of the turbo lag inherent in the earlier models.

In 1978, Porsche introduced the new version of the 911, called the "911SC". Porsche reintroduced the SC designation for the first time since the 356SC (as distinguished from the race engined 356 Carrera). There was no Carrera version of the 911SC. According to modern-day Porsche literature and websites (there is no period reference to SC meaning anything) the "SC" stands for "Super Carrera". It featured a 3.0-litre aluminum engine with Bosch K-Jetronic fuel injection and a 5-speed 915 transmission. Originally power output was 180 PS (130 kW; 180 hp), later 191 PS (140 kW; 188 hp) and then in 1981 it was increased to 204 PS (150 kW; 201 hp). The move to an aluminum engine was to regain case reliability, something missing for many years with magnesium. In 1981 a Cabriolet concept car was introduced at the Frankfurt Motor Show. The convertible body design also featured four-wheel drive, although this was dropped in the production version. The first 911 Cabriolet debuted in late 1982, as a 1983 model. This was Porsche"s first cabriolet since the 356 of the mid-1960s. A total of 4,214 were sold in its introductory year, despite its premium price relative to the open-top targa.

In 1979, Porsche had made plans to replace the 911 with their new 928 company flagship. Sales of the 911 remained so strong, however, that Porsche revised its strategy and decided to inject new life into the 911 editions. 911 SC sales totaled 58,914 cars.

Peter W. Schutz (CEO Porsche AG 1981–1987) wrote:The decision to keep the 911 in the product line occurred one afternoon in the office of Dr. Helmuth Bott[de], the Porsche operating board member responsible for all engineering and development. I noticed a chart on the wall of Professor Bott"s office. It depicted the ongoing development schedules for the three primary Porsche product lines: 944, 928 and 911. Two of them stretched far into the future, but the 911 program stopped at the end of 1981. I remember rising from my chair, walking over to the chart, taking a black marker pen, and extending the 911 program bar clean off the chart. I am sure I heard a silent cheer from Professor Bott, and I knew I had done the right thing. The Porsche 911, the company icon, had been saved, and I believe the company was saved with it.

A new higher-displacement engine, a 3.2-litre horizontally opposed flat 6-cylinder unit, was utilized. At the time Porsche claimed it was 80% new.Getrag, model number G50 with proven BorgWarner synchronizers. This slightly heavier version also featured a hydraulically operated clutch.

In 1985, Porsche introduced the first Carrera Club Sport prototype with the identification number WP0ZZZ91ZF100848. Later on in that year, a 911 Club Sport Row (Rest Of World) with the identification number WP0ZZZ91ZFS101166 was special ordered for a Porsche driver that was particularly inspired by the CS prototype on the track. From 1987 to September 1989, Porsche decided to produced 340 units for their customers that wanted a track inspired road car, The 911 Carrera Club Sport (CS) (option M637), is a reduced weight version of the standard Carrera purposely built for club racing, it gained engine and suspension modifications. The CS had a blueprinted engine with hollow intake valves and a higher rev limit, deletion of: all power options, sunroof (except one unit), air conditioning (except two units), radio, rear seat, undercoating, sound insulation, rear wiper, door pocket lids, fog lamps, front hood locking mechanism, engine and luggage compartment lights, lockable wheel nuts and even the rear lid "Carrera" logo, all in order to save an estimated 70 kg (150 lb) in weight. With the exception of CS cars delivered to the UK, all are identifiable by the "CS Club Sport" decal on the left front fender and came in a variety of colors, some special ordered. Some U.S. CS cars did not have the decal installed by the dealer; however, all have a "SP" stamp on the crankcase and cylinder head. The UK cars were all finished "Grand Prix White" with a red "Carrera CS" decal on each side of the car and red wheels. Although the CS was well received by the club racers, because it cost more than the standard 911, but had fewer comfort features. According to Porsche Club of America and Porsche Club Great Britain CS Registers, 21 are documented as delivered to the U.S. in 1988 with 7 in 1989, one to Canada in 1988 and 53 to the United Kingdom from 1987 to 1989.

In 1988, Porsche produced 875 examples of the CE or Commemorative Edition 911 Carrera in coupe, targa and cabriolet variants to mark the production of the 250,000th 911. Distinguishing features include special diamond blue metallic paint with color-matched Fuchs wheels, front and rear spoilers, and interior carpets and leather. These cars also featured Dr. Ferdinand Porsche"s signature embroidered on the seats in the headrest area. Of the 875 examples produced, only 300 were imported to the US (120 coupes, 100 cabrio"s and 80 Targa"s), 250 were sold in Germany, 50 went to the UK, and the remainder to other countries.

For 1989, Porsche produced the 25th Anniversary Special Edition model to mark the 25th year of 911 production. The 1989 Porsche brochure lists production of 500 U.S. market cars, of which 300 were coupés (240 in silver metallic paint and 60 in satin black metallic), and 200 cabriolet models (160 in silver and 40 in black). All had "silk grey" leather with black accent piping and silk grey velour carpeting. Included were body color Fuchs wheels in 6x16 (front) and 8x16 (rear), stitched leather console with an outside temperature gauge and a CD or cassette holder, a limited-slip differential, and a short shifting gear lever, as well as small bronze "25th Anniversary Special Edition" badges.

For 1989 the 911 underwent a major evolution with the introduction of the Type 964. With technologies from the 959 flagship model, this would be an important car for Porsche, since the world economy was undergoing recession and the company could not rely on its image alone. It was launched as the Carrera 4, the "4" indicating four-wheel-drive, demonstrating the company"s commitment to engineering. Drag coefficient was down to 0.32. A rear spoiler deployed at high speed, preserving the purity of design when the vehicle was at rest. The chassis was redesigned overall. Coil springs, ABS brakes and power steering made their debut. The engine was increased in size to 3,600 cc and was rated at 250 PS (180 kW; 250 hp). The rear-wheel-drive version, the Carrera 2, arrived a year later.

In 1990, Porsche introduced the ahead-of-its-time Tiptronic automatic transmission in the 964 Carrera 2, featuring adaptive electronic management and full manual control. The 964 was one of the first cars in the world offered with dual airbags standard (from 1991), the first being the 944 Turbo (from 1987).

In 1992, Porsche re-introduced a limited-edition RS model, inspired by the 1973 Carrera RS and emissions-legal in Europe only. In 1993, appeals from American customers resulted in Porsche developing the RS America of which 701 units were built. In 1994, the RS America returned with rear seats. A total of 84 RS America cars were made in 1994. However, while European RS was a homologation special, RS America was an option delete variant of the regular model. The RS 3.8 of 1993 had Turbo-style bodywork, a larger fixed whale tail in place of the electronically operated rear spoiler, and a 300 PS (220 kW; 300 hp) 3,746 cc (3.7 L) engine.

In 1990 Porsche introduced a Turbocharged version of the 964 series. This car is sometimes mistakenly called 965 (this type number actually referred to a stillborn project that would have been a hi-tech turbocharged car in the vein of the 959). For the 1991 through 1993 model years, Porsche produced the 964 Turbo with the 930"s proven 3.3 L engine, improved to have a power output of 320 PS (240 kW; 320 hp). 1994 brought the Carrera 2/4"s 3.6 L engine, now in turbocharged form and sending a staggering 360 PS (265 kW; 355 hp) to the rear wheels. With the 993 on the way, this car was produced through 1994 and remains rather rare.

The 911 was again revised for model year 1994 under the internal name Type 993. This car was significant as it was the final incarnation of the air-cooled 911 first introduced in 1964. Most enthusiasts and collectors consider the 993 to be the best of the air-cooled 911 series. As Car & Driver noted, "Porsche"s version of the Goldilocks tale is the 993-generation 911, the one many Porschephiles agree that the company got just right," with an "ideal blend of technology and classic 911 air-cooled heritage."

Along with the revised bodywork, mechanically the 993 also featured an all-new multilink rear suspension that improved the car"s ride and handling. This rear suspension was largely derived from the stillborn Porsche 989"s rear multilink design and served to rectify the problems with earlier models" tendency to oversteer if the throttle or brakes were applied mid-corner. These modifications also reduced previous 911"s lift-off oversteer problems to a much more moderate degree.

The new suspension, along with chassis refinements, enabled the car to keep up dynamically with the competition. Engine capacity remained at 3.6 L, but power rose to 272 PS (200 kW; 268 hp) due to better engine management and exhaust design, and beginning with model year 1996 to 286 PS (210 kW; 282 hp). The 993 was the first Porsche to debut variable-length intake runners with the "Varioram" system on 1996 models. This addressed the inherent compromise between high-rpm power production and low-rpm torque production and was one of the first of its kind to be employed on production vehicles. However, the Varioram version with its OBD II had issues with carbon deposits, resulting in failed smog tests. This caused expensive repairs and made comparisons with the 1995 car (with OBD I and just 12 hp less) inevitable. Meanwhile, a new four-wheel-drive system was introduced as an option in the form of the Carrera 4, the rear-wheel-drive versions simply being called Carrera or C2. A lightweight RS variant had a 3.8 L engine rated at 300 PS (221 kW; 296 hp), and was only rear-wheel drive.

A Turbocharged version of the 993 was launched in 1995 and became the first standard production Porsche with twin turbochargers and the first 911 Turbo to be equipped with permanent all-wheel-drive (the homologated GT2 version based on the Turbo retained RWD). The similarity in specification and in performance levels inspired several comparison road tests with the 959.

In 1997, Porsche introduced a limited run of 183 units of the Sport version of the 993 turbo dubbed the turbo S. With 24 PS (18 kW; 24 hp) over the regular Turbo"s 408 PS (300 kW; 402 hp), features include a scoop on the side right behind the doors for engine cooling and vents on the whale tail rear spoiler. Aside from an upgraded ECU mapping, a centre oil cooler behind the centre air intake at the front bumper was added.

The Type 996 introduced in 1998 represented two major changes for the venerable 911 lineage: a water-cooled flat-6 engine replaced the popular air-cooled engine used in the 911 for 34 years and the body shell received its first major re-design. Changing to a water-cooled engine was controversial with Porsche traditionalists, who noted this as the end of the "true" 911.

The 996 styling shared its front end with Porsche"s mid engine entry-level Boxster. Pinky Lai"s work on the exterior won international design awards between 1997 and 2003.

Porsche introduced a road-legal GT3 version of the 996 series which was derived from the company"s racing car used in the GT3 class racing. Simply called GT3, the car featured lightweight materials including thinner windows and deletion of the rear seats. The GT3 was a lighter and more focused design with an emphasis on handling and performance, a concept that dates back to the 1973 Carrera RS. The suspension ride height was lowered and tuned for responsiveness over compliance and comfort. These revisions improved handling and steering. Of more significance was the engine used in the GT3. Instead of using a version of the water-cooled units found in other 996 models, the naturally aspirated engine was derived from the 911 GT1 "98 sports-prototype racing car and featured lightweight materials which enabled the engine to have higher rpm.

In 2000, Porsche launched the turbocharged version of the Type 996 for the 2001 model year. Like the GT3, the Turbo"s engine was derived from the engine used in the 911 GT1 and, like its predecessor, featured twin-turbos and now had a power output of 420 PS (309 kW; 414 hp).

Initially, two versions of the 997 were introduced— the rear-wheel-drive Carrera and Carrera S. While the base 997 Carrera had a power output of 325 PS (239 kW; 321 hp) from its 3.6 L Flat 6, a more powerful 3.8 L 355 PS (261 kW; 350 hp) Flat 6 powers the Carrera S. Besides a more powerful engine, the Carrera S also comes standard with 19 in (48 cm) "Lobster Fork" style wheels, more