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Hydraulic motors (sometimes incorrectly spelled as “hydrolic” motors) convert hydraulic pressure into force that is able to generate great power. They are a type of actuator that converts the pressure of the moving hydraulic fluid into torque and rotational energy.

Hydraulic motors are an important component overall in the field of hydraulics, a specialized form of power transmission that harnesses the energy transmitted by moving liquids under pressure and converts it into mechanical energy. Power transmission is a general term denoting the field of translating energy into usable, everyday forms. The three main branches of power transmission are electrical power, mechanical power, and fluid power. Fluid power can further be divided into the field of hydraulics and the field of pneumatics (translating the energy in compressed gas into mechanical energy).

Arguably, hydraulic power traces back to the beginnings of human civilization. For thousands of years, humans have harnessed the power of moving water for energy. (The most basic “hydraulic” application is harnessing moving water to turn wheels.) For a brief survey of hydraulic history, please refer to our article on Hydraulic Cylinders.

In terms of hydraulic motor development, the middle of the Industrial Revolution proved to be a notable turning point. During that year, English industrialist William Armstrong started developing more efficient applications of hydraulic power after observing inefficiencies in water wheel usage on a fishing trip. One of his first inventions was a rotary, water-powered engine. Unfortunately, this invention failed to attract much attention, but it provided an early model for a rotary actuator based on hydraulic power.

The use of hydraulic systems in general offer several advantages within the overall field of power transmission. Some of those advantages include efficiency, simplicity, versatility, relative safety, etc. These and other advantages are further elaborated on in our article on Hydraulic Pumps.

Hydraulic motors are able to produce much more power than other motors of the same size and for this reason are used for larger loads than electric motors.

When space constrictions are an issue, small hydraulic motors are used. Small hydraulic motors have small stroke lengths; they may be less than an inch.

A major disadvantage of using hydraulic motors is inefficient usage of the actual energy source. Power systems with hydraulic motors can consume large amounts of hydraulic fluid. For example, it is not uncommon for hydraulically-driven machines on construction sites to require 100 or more gallons of hydraulic oil to operate.

Since they are often confused in everyday language, it is important to distinguish between hydraulic motors and hydraulic power packs or hydraulic power units. Technically speaking, an enclosed mechanical system that uses liquid to produce hydraulic power is known as a hydraulic power pack or a hydraulic power unit. These packs, or units, generally include a reservoir, a pump, a piping/tubing system, valves, and actuators (including both cylinders and motors). It is not uncommon, however, to hear a hydraulic motor described as consisting of these components – a reservoir, a pump, etc. However, it is more accurate to describe a hydraulic motor as a part of an overall hydraulic power system that works in sync with these other components. Hydraulic motors are a type of actuating component within an overall hydraulic power system – a component responsible for actually translating hydraulic energy into mechanical energy.

Liquids represent a “median” state between gases and solids on the matter spectrum. Despite this, liquids represent solids far more than gases in an important aspect: they are virtually incompressible. One consequence of this is that force applied to one point in a confined liquid can be transmitted quite efficiently to another point in that same liquid. This reality forms the basis of the mechanical energy that hydraulic systems are able to produce. For a fuller explanation of how hydraulic power works, please refer to our article on Hydraulic Pumps.

It has previously been noted that “Pascal’s Law” applies to confined liquids. Thus, for liquids to act in a hydraulic fashion, it must function with some type of enclosed system. As noticed in the introduction, these “systems” are known as hydraulic power packs and share three main parts—a reservoir, a pump and an actuator—that work together to convert hydraulic energy into mechanical energy.

Hydraulic motors are an integral part of machines that rely on hydraulic power for operation because they actuate and “complete” the process of converting hydraulic energy into mechanical energy. Since hydraulic motors are fairly simple machines that are composed of rotating machinery, they specifically translate hydraulic energy into rotational mechanical energy. The main enclosure and interior components of the motor are made from metal such as steel or iron so they can withstand high pressures and operating speeds. In a sense, motors can be thought of as hydraulic pumps working “backward” or in reverse.

Overall, a hydraulic power unit pumps fluid (usually a type of oil) via a small pneumatic engine from a reservoir and sends it to the motor while regulating fluid temperature. Oil is pumped from the reservoir through an inlet valve to an outlet valve through a series of gears, turning vanes or cylinders, depending on what specific type of hydraulic motor it is. Pressurized fluid creates mechanical energy and motion by physically pushing the motor, causing the rotating components to turn very quickly, and transferring energy to the machinery that the motor is linked to. Typically, not every rotational component is directly connected to producing mechanical energy; for example, in a typical gear motor, only one of the two gears is connected to and responsible for turning the motor shaft. This type of operation directly contrasts with electric engines, in which electromagnetic forces produced by flowing electric current are the response for rotating the motor shaft.

Hydraulic motors, rotary or mechanical actuators which is operated by the conversion of hydraulic pressure or fluid energy to torque and angular displacement.

Driveshaft, a part of the hydraulic motor that delivers or transfers the torque created inside the motor to the outside environment where it is used for lifting loads and other applications.

Vane hydraulic motors have a hydraulic balance that prevents the rotor from sideloading the shaft, with the pressure difference develops the torque as the oil from the pump is forced through the motor.

There are three basic kinds of hydraulics motors: gear, vane and piston type. Each is identified by the design of the rotating component inside. Collectively, the various types of hydraulic motors are optimal for a wide range of specific applications, conditions or usages.

Another common type of hydraulic motor. Radial piston hydraulic motors have pistons mounted around a center shaft that is eccentrically balanced. Fluid causes the pistons to move outward, causing rotation. Axial piston hydraulic motors derive their name from the fact they use axial instead of radial motion, despite their similar design to radial piston motors.

Built into wheel hubs to supply the power needed to rotate the wheels and move the vehicle. A hydraulic wheel motor can operate a single wheel or multiple wheels, depending on the power of the motor and the size of the machine.

Other motors focus on the rotational speed and torque. High speed hydraulic motors convert hydraulic pressure into force at elevated rotations per minute thereby generating large amounts of power. High torque hydraulic motors run at low speeds while operating with increased torque, thus earning the name low speed-high torque (LSHT) motors.

Advances are still being made to hydraulic motors and their various applications. One example is the development of hybrid hydraulic automobiles, which are being developed as an alternative to gas/electric hybrid cars. Hybrid hydraulic vehicles are particularly efficient at reclaiming energy when braking or slowing down.

A type of orbital hydraulic motor, have rollers that are hydro-dynamically supported to minimize friction, ensuring maximum durability and high output at high pressure.

A type of orbital hydraulic motor, are particularly suited for long working cycles at average pressure. Rotor motors are operated by lobes that are fixed and set directly on the stator.

Hydraulic systems and their use are abundant in a wide variety of fields including construction fields, agricultural fields, industrial fields, transportation fields (e.g. automotive, aerospace), various marine work environments, etc. Hydraulic motors are commonly used in machinery that requires strong pressurized actions such as aircraft for raising the wing flaps, heavy duty construction vehicles such as backhoes or crane industrial lifting or for powering automated manufacturing systems. Hydraulics motors are also used in trenchers, automobiles, construction equipment, drives for marine winches, waste management and recycling processes, wheel motors for military vehicles, self-driven cranes, excavators, forestry, agriculture, conveyor and auger systems, dredging and industrial processing.

While hydraulic power transmission is extremely useful in a wide variety of professional applications, it is generally not recommended to use only one form of power transmission. Although it is somewhat counter-intuitive, the maximum benefit of each form of power transmission (electrical, mechanical, pneumatic, and hydraulic) occurs when each form is integrated into an overall power transmission strategy. As a result, it is worthwhile to put in an effort to find honest and skilled hydraulic manufacturers / suppliers who can assist you in developing and implementing an overall hydraulic strategy.

You should also make sure to discuss the pros and cons of different motors with your manufacturer in order to select the best one for your specific application. For example, vane motors generally cost less than piston type motors. However, they generally do not achieve the same efficiency as piston type motors, nor do they typically last as long. Properly identifying and weighing different factors such as these will enable you to choose the right motor for the right application.

Despite the apparent simplicity of hydraulic systems, engineers and manufacturers must take into account certain variables in order to build an efficient and safe device. The fluid used in the motor or system must be a good lubricant, first and foremost. It should also be chemically stable and compatible with the metals inside the motor. The pump, fluid reservoir and relief valves should be of appropriate power, capacity or strength to allow the motor to perform at optimum levels.

Problems with hydraulic motors can often be traced to poor maintenance, the use of improper fluid within the motor, or improper usage of the motor itself. Some not uncommon causes of motor failure are:

It is important to keep in mind that hydraulic motors are designed to function within certain limits which should not be exceeded. Those limits mainly include torque, pressure, speed, temperature, and load. To give one example, operating a hydraulic motor at excessive temperatures thins hydraulic fluid, negatively affects internal lubrication, and decreases overall the efficiency of the motor. Staying within a motor’s operational limits will preempt unnecessary and needless malfunctions.

In terms of safety, the relative simplicity of hydraulic systems and components (when compared to electrical or mechanical counterparts) does not mean they should not be handled with care. A fundamental safety precaution when interacting with hydraulic systems is to avoid physical contact if possible. Active fluid pressure within a hydraulic system can pose a hazard even if a hydraulic machine is not actively operating.

A container that stores fluid under pressure. Accumulators, the common types of which are piston, bladder and diaphragm, are used as an energy source or to absorb hydraulic shock.

The amount of fluid that passes through a pump, motor or cylinder in a period of time or during a single actuation event, such as a revolution or stroke.

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Technically, hydraulic motors are mechanical actuators; they convert pressure into rotational hydraulic energy and torque. They are also the rotary counterpart of hydraulic cylinders. Because hydraulic motors are driven by engines, they may also be called hydraulic drive motors.

Broadly, hydraulic motors serve the construction, automotive, agriculture, forestry, manufacturing, military, waste management and recycling, aerospace, marine, and oil and energy industries.

They are designed to serve equipment and machinery that need strong pressurized actions to power their functions or parts of their functions. These are functions that could not be supported by the lesser power produced by electric motors.

Hydraulic motors, for example, help raise the wing flaps of airplanes and power the lifting of industrial cranes. Some other of the many machines with which customers use hydraulic motors include agitator and mixer drives, crane drives and self-driven cranes, conveyor and feeder drives, drilling rigs, cars and trucks, drum drives for digesters, high-powered lawn trimmers, the wheel motors of military vehicles, shredders, trench cutters, trommels, kilns, excavators, marine winch drives, and plastic injection machines.

The first hydraulic motors were born during the Industrial Revolution, when industrialist William Armstrong started working on ways to make hydraulic power more efficient. One of the first results of his efforts was his invention of the water powered rotary engine. While his contemporaries did not make much use out his engine, it did serve as an example of a working hydraulic powered rotary actuator upon which later inventors could build. Later, Armstrong designed the hydraulic motor used to the power the Swing Bridge positioned over the River Tyne. His oscillating, single action engine featured three cylinders. Over the years, Armstrong designed many different hydraulic motors, used to power machines like hydraulic cranes and applications related mainly to bridges and docks.

Many of Armstrong’s designed wasted water because they used the same amount of water no matter the load size. This is because they featured fixed strokes and valves with cut-offs operators could not control. To remedy this, engineers such as Arthur Rigg began designing variable stroke hydraulic motors. Generally, operators were able to control water consumption and engine power by adjusting stroke. Arthur Rigg patented his engine design in 1886. It featured a three-cylinder radial engine, the stroke length of which operators could control using a double eccentric mechanism.

Since the Industrial Revolution, engineers have learned ways to use hydraulic power more efficiently and to achieve greater feats. Modern hydraulic systems power hydraulic equipment and products like bulldozers, cranes, kilns, hydraulic lifts, metalworking machines, and much more.

For the best results, manufacturers build the interior hydraulic motor components and main hydraulic motor enclosure from a durable metal, like steel or iron, that can weather both high operating speeds and pressure.

In order to build the best hydraulic motor possible, manufacturers must take a number of factors into consideration, including the state of the relief valves, fluid reservoir, and hydraulic pump. All of these components must all be endowed with levels of strength, capacity, and power that matches the needs of the fluid that will go through them. This fluid, in turn, must be chemically stable and compatible with the metals with which the motor is made, and it must be a good lubricant.

Some of the motor components that manufacturers can customize include torque (starting torque, torque output, breakaway torque, running torque, etc.), motor size, motor range, presence of pistons and shafts, pressure fluid level, and resistance rating.

Hydraulic motors are constructed with a fair amount of simplicity. Its three main parts are the hydraulic pumps, reservoir, and cylinder. Of course, a hydraulic motor, or hydraulic pump motor, would be nothing without the addition of pressurized fluid, usually a type of oil. This hydraulic component creates motion by pushing against it so that the motor’s rotating components spin all the more quickly and generate mechanical energy. Hydraulic motors often also feature input shafts and output shafts. Shafts assist in operation by applying fluid energy to the load.

To work, a small pneumatic engine pumps oil from the reservoir, where it goes from an inlet valve to an outlet valve and through a series of gears and cylinders or turning vanes, depending on the motor’s design.

There are a few different types of hydraulic motors. The main ones, which are each named for the rotating component they use, are vane, gear, and piston hydraulic motors.

Vane motors function using a rotor contained inside a housing with an eccentric bore, that has vanes that slide in and out of it. The sliding motion of the rotor vanes is created by a force differential brought on by an unbalanced force of pressurized fluid. While they are not as efficient as piston motors, vane motors are less expensive than piston motors.

Gear motors, or hydraulic gear motors, consist of a driver gear and an idler gear. To generate power in a gear motor, high pressure fluid is forced into one side of the gears, where it flows around outskirts of the gears to the outlet port, where the gears then interlock and disallow the oil from flowing back out. Here, the gears rotate, generating energy.

Piston motors may use an axial piston pump or a radial piston pump. An axial piston motor pump consists of an odd number of pistons, arranged in a circle around a cylinder block, to regulate fluid pressure and flow. A radial piston motor pump, on the other hand, use pistons mounted around an eccentrically-balanced center shaft, which either radiate inward or outward.

In addition to the basic motor types, there are a few different types of specialized motors, modified for semi-specific applications. These include hydraulic wheel motors, high speed hydraulic motors, high torque hydraulic motors, and gerotor motors.

Hydraulic wheel motors are built directly into wheel hubs, where they contribute the power the wheels require to rotate. Depending on the size of the machine and the power of the motor, a hydraulic wheel motor can control just one or multiple wheels.

High speed hydraulic motors provide higher than normal amounts of power by converting hydraulic pressure fluid into force with an elevated number of rotations per minute.

High torque hydraulic motors, on the other hand, achieve increased torque by running at low speeds, which is why they are often called low speed-high torque (LSHT) motors.

Gerotor motors, or generated rotor motors, are motors that consist of an inner and outer rotor. These hydraulic motors can also work as pistonless rotary engines.

Hydraulic motors offer their users a wide a range of benefits. These benefits include improved power transmission, efficiency, improved power transmission safety, and increased ease and simplicity of power transmission.

In addition, hydraulic motors are much more powerful than electric motors of comparable size. They can also achieve high quality results even in a tight space; manufacturers are able to design compact hydraulic motors that use stroke lengths of less than an inch. A byproduct of this is the fact that they are very versatile.

Examples of hydraulic motor accessories you may require include motor seal kits, pump seal kits, check valves, tubing, pumps, and hydraulic fluid. To find out what accessories are best for your application, talk to your hydraulic motor supplier.

First, check your hydraulic motor regularly for issues like motor input shaft or output shaft misalignment, motor displacement, dirty hydraulic fluid and internal leaks (check motor feed lines and the like).

Second, treat your motor well by never operating it outside of its designed limitations. For example, do not push it beyond its designated load, speed, torque, temperature, and pressure. Exceeding your motor’s designed limits puts it at risks for issues like diminished internal lubrication (associated with excessive heat), single displacement reactions, and general malfunctions.

Finally, for your own safety, always handle your hydraulic motor components with proper care. For example, never make direct physical contact with active hydraulic fluid. Not only could it burn you, but if it is under pressure, it could release with a damaging amount of force. Look to organizations like OSHA to guide you when it comes to handling of hydraulic motors.

As we mentioned in the section above, you should always use hydraulic motors according to the guidelines of OSHA, or the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. OSHA puts out standard guidelines designed to keep you and your workers safe when operating machinery. You should also make sure your manufacturer builds your hydraulic motors in a way that supports OSHA requirements.

In addition to OSHA guidelines, your hydraulic motors likely need to meet the standards of a variety of other organizations. The answer to the question of which organizations and guidelines depends on your industry, application, and location. For example, in the United States, some of the standards organizations most influential in the hydraulics motor industry include the NFPA (National Fluid Power Association), SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers), and ANSI (American National Standards Institute). The premiere organization used internationally is the aptly named ISO, or International Standards Organization. All industries and applications either have their own standards or, most commonly, adapt standards from organizations like these. To find out which standards you should make sure your hydraulic motors meet, talk to your industry leaders.

If you are in the market for a hydraulic motor, you need to partner with a supplier that will drive you to success. Such a supplier will not only be experienced with a proven track record but will also offer you tangible advantages such as the ability to deliver high quality products within your budget, the assurance that they will work within your timeframe, the assurance that they will produce a product that meets your standard requirements, the ability to deliver to you, and the agreement to meet any post-delivery services you require (parts replacement, hydraulic repair, etc.).

Find a supplier like this by checking out the hydraulic motor manufacturers we have listed on this page. All of those we have listed are highly capable hydraulic service providers that have proven themselves many times over. Their information is dispersed evenly throughout the page, wedged in between our industry info paragraphs. For the best results, we recommend you pick three or four you believe have the potential to best meet your specifications, and then reach out to each of them individually to discuss said specifications. Once you have done that, compare and contrast those conversations, and pick the right one for you.

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Some of these hydraulic pumps are examples of gear pumps. Gear pumps can be operated in a number of ways. Electric hydraulic pumps are often equipped with gears as a method of transmitting liquid from one area to another. Many other gear pump varieties are powered by gas motors. Hydraulic gear pumps are used in the automotive, agricultural, construction, defense contracting and manufacturing industries.

There are two main hydraulic gear pump varieties: external gear pumps and internal gear pumps. External gear pumps feature two spur gears, both of which gears" spurs are externally oriented. Internal gear pumps also have two spur gears, each gears" spurs are internally oriented, with one gear rotating around inside of the other gear.

Both kinds of gear pumps supply a regular amount of liquid for every rotation of the gears. Hydraulic gear pumps are favored because of their relatively simple design, their versatility and their effectiveness. Also, because they are available in multiple configurations, they can be applied in a wide variety of contexts in industry as well as in commercial and consumer products contexts.

Because of the wide variety of contexts in which hydraulic pumps are used, and because of the varying kinds of tasks that require the use of pumps within each of those contexts, the demand for hydraulic gear pumps, as well as many other hydraulic pump varieties, is likely to remain for the foreseeable future.

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A hydraulic system may use one or more motors. Essentially, these motors work by converting hydraulic (fluid) pressure and flow into mechanical power (torque). Hydraulic motors strongly resemble hydraulic pumps in their basic design—in fact, some motors can even be used as pumps if necessary. Hydraulic motors are used in a very broad range of applications, including but not limited to cranes, winches, conveyors, excavators, roll mills, and many others.

As these devices can be found in widely varying applications, hydraulic motors are manufactured in a number of radically different types, each of which with its own unique features.

Gear motors – Hydraulic gear motors utilise an idler gear and a drive gear in a side-by-side configuration. The flow of fluid coming in through the inlet turns the interlocking gears conveying the fluid through the device and into the outlet opening. These inexpensive units are valued for their versatility and dependability.

Piston motors – Hydraulic piston motors are noted for their high power and torque outputs at high and low speeds. These motors are produced in two main varieties. The radial type has multiple pistons around a central shaft, in a design that resembles a star. The axial design is the more common and more compact of the two, with the pistons being housed within a circular cylinder block

Vane motors – These motors contain a series of thin vanes protruding from a rotor to create compartments that carry fluid from the input to the output. Hydraulic vane motors are widely known as quiet, easy-to-service devices.

Orbital motors – These motors generate very high torques by employing a gear-inside-a-gear (Gerotor) design. They also feature a spool or disc distributor valve that helps direct the fluid correctly.

You can count on a leading hydraulic motor supplier to provide the motors needed for any application. Just as we stock hydraulic pump parts, we offer the parts to build and repair hydraulic motors in the most cost-effective manner. Efficient tools are at your disposal to order quickly and spend little time ordering critical hydraulic components.

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