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Old school hydraulic setups have been making a big comeback over the past few years. Retro seems to be in and the hydro setups of old are as popular as ever. Pescos, Eemcos and OG aircraft parts are making their way into the trunks of some of the hottest cars, and quite a few of our latest cover cars have featured these setups.

With that said, we decided to give you a little insight into the inner workings of these pumps and accessories. Mike of Craps, Inc. in Whittier, California, is going to take us on a trip through the literal ins and outs of one of the more accessible Pesco pumps, a 280, and how to break it down for painting, polishing and chroming.

Many people will tear down these pumps to certain degrees, declaring that if the pump works it shouldn"t be disturbed. And depending on what you"re going to do as far as painting and polishing, this may very well be true. But Mike personally likes to take them totally apart; preferring to polish and paint many of his setups, and the right way to do that is to take them apart entirely. He"s also learned a few tricks along the way that help greatly in making sure that the pump works properly when reassembled. So let"s take apart a Pesco 280 and get a brief intro into the secretive world of old school aircraft parts.

When Mike is re-assembling the pumps he has a few secrets that he shared with us. "I spend quite a few hours hand sanding the parts to make them as smooth as possible," he says. "Then I will polish many of them myself. Making sure that mating surfaces stay unmolested is of the utmost importance. It"s the difference between the part working and not working. After I polish the parts separately, I then assemble them and have the polisher go over them on the buffer to make sure that the mating surfaces don"t get hit with the buffer and that the entire part has a uniform shine in all of the tight crevices."

If you"re curious about the difference that Mike described, feel free to check out the February "08 "59 Chevy Impala cover car, "Aqua Boogie." The setup is a masterpiece featuring Eemco pumps, Adex dumps and liquid-filled gauges. Only one or two parts are painted and this is really only possible at that level doing it the way that Mike does it.

So there you have it, a breakdown of the Pesco pump. As you can see by the final picture, the pump is worthy of a show car and works flawlessly. In the somewhat near future we"re going to de-mystify the old school pump game, so if this is something that interests you, keep your eyes peeled.

pesco 777 <a href=''>hydraulic</a> <a href=''>pump</a> free sample

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pesco 777 <a href=''>hydraulic</a> <a href=''>pump</a> free sample

An aircraft hydraulic system allows for forces to be applied, multiplied, and transmitted from one location to another through an incompressible fluid medium. Hydraulics are a critical system on almost all modern aircraft. Light aircraft primarily make use of hydraulics to augment and transmit braking forces from the cockpit to the brake disk or drum. Larger, more complex aircraft may use hydraulics to actuate landing gear, flaps and control surfaces in addition to braking and nose-wheel steering.

A hydraulic system operates on the principles of Pascal’s Law and the conservation of energy to transmit a force and displacement from one point to another in the system. The basic operating principles of a hydraulic system are described below.

This means that if the pressure inside a hydraulic line is changed, e.g. the pilot depresses a brake pedal, the increased pressure due to the reduced volume in the system will be transmitted equally to all points in that system.

Pascal’s Law states that any pressure change in the system will be the same everywhere in the fluid. This means that the input and output force in the hydraulic system are related to each-other by the ratio of their respective cylinder areas.

If the area of the output cylinder is twice that of the input cylinder, then the force output will be twice the input force. Hydraulic lines therefore have the property of being a force multiplier; this is how a small jack is able to lift a large vehicle.

The principle of the conservation of energy applied to a hydraulic cylinder dictates that the system cannot do more work than is done on it. The input and output work must therefore be equal for the conservation law to apply.

Hydraulic systems work on the principle that fluid, unlike air, is virtually incompressible. This makes it a good medium to transmit and multiply forces. Incompressibility is not the only requirement for a useful hydraulic fluid; viscosity, stability, and the tendency to resist vaporization are important too.

A hydraulic fluid must have sufficient viscosity such that it aids in the lubrication and protection of the entire system, but not so great that it offers resistance to flow during operation. A typical hydraulic system is made up of cylinders, pistons, valves and pumps. If the viscosity drops too low then these components will not adequately seal, resulting in leaks in the system and poor performance.

Phosphate esters are predominantly used in larger transport category aircraft and were developed after World War Two as a response to the increase in the number of hydraulic brake fires resulting from the higher landing speeds of more modern aircraft. These fluids are colored purple and have very good fire-resistant properties.

An aircraft hydraulic system can range from very simple: an unassisted brake system on a light aircraft, to very complex. The hydraulic system on a commercial jet airliner is designed with multiple pumps, reservoirs and fluid passages, and typically drives the flight control system, brakes, high-lift devices, spoilers and nose-wheel steering.

Regardless of the complexity, all hydraulic systems comprise of a reservoir to store fluid, a pump (could be a piston actuated by a foot force) to drive the system, valves to control the direction, speed and pressure of fluid flow, a filter to remove impurities, and an actuator to apply a force on the output.

When the hydraulic system is activated, the pump pushes fluid under pressure to the high-pressure side of the actuating cylinder. This forces the piston in the cylinder to move in the direction of the applied pressure gradient. The fluid on the low-pressure side of the cylinder is forced out and returns to the reservoir via a filter to remove any impurities. Depending on the type of actuator, the applied pressure may be reversed to move the actuator in both directions.

Hydraulic systems are classified as either open-center or closed-center. In open center systems the various actuators are arranged in series such that fluid passes through each selector valve before returning to the reservoir. The fluid passes freely through each selector valve unless the valve is positioned to operate the actuator, in which case the actuator is moved as pressure builds up on the pressure side of the piston. The design of an open center system is such that the system is only under pressure while an actuator is operating. With all actuators idle the pump is free to circulate the fluid through the system.

A closed center system places the actuators in parallel to one another. This requires that the pump output be controlled to accommodate a differing number of actuators operating simultaneously. The arrangement is such that the system is always under pressure which results in a quicker response when an actuator is activated.

A typical hydraulic system comprises a number of components which work together to deliver a predictable and repeatable force response at the output actuating cylinder.

A reservoir works as a storage space in the system for hydraulic fluid. It is important that sufficient fluid is present in the system to provide an adequate supply in all operating conditions. The fluid flows from the reservoir into the system where it performs the required actuations before returning to the reservoir. Temperature changes can result in the fluid volume changing and so the reservoir is designed to act as an overflow during hot operation. Excess fluid is stored in the reservoir to mitigate leaks in the system which would otherwise cause the system to stop operating once a critical fluid level was reached.

Non-pressurized reservoirs are vented to the atmosphere to allow any air trapped in the system to vent. As the level in the reservoir drops, air enters through the vent to prevent a vacuum from forming. Pressurized reservoirs may be necessary if the aircraft operates at very high altitudes where a positive pressure in the reservoir ensures that the fluid flows into the pump at high altitudes where the ambient pressure is low.

It is important to reduce swirling and surging of the hydraulic fluid in the reservoir as far as possible. Baffles and fins are usually incorporated to reduce the motion of the fluid during flight, and to keep the formation of bubbles to a minimum.

Redundancy should always be built into the hydraulic system to ensure that failure of a single component does not result in failure of the whole system. The primary hydraulic pump is a critical component and as such there is usually an emergency pump installed downstream of the reservoir to operate if the main pump fails. The emergency pump is usually electric powered and runs off the aircraft’s electrical system.

A common reservoir design provides two outlets from a single reservoir. The main pump is fed via a standpipe which sits above the reservoir floor. If the level in the reservoir drops below the level of the standpipe, the emergency feed is activated which is fed from the reservoir floor. The fluid level may slowly drop due to an undetected leak which would result in a full system failure if both pumps were fed from the same level. Feeding the main pump from a point above the floor also ensures that contaminants don’t get pumped through the system as these heavier impediments should sink to the floor under the action of gravity.

An inline reservoir is a standalone unit which is connected in series to the system. Some systems make use of an integral reservoir where excess fluid is stored in a space set aside in a large component which forms a part of the system. A large brake drum may for example act as a reservoir in a smaller hydraulic system.

A filter is necessary in a hydraulic system to remove any foreign particles or contaminating substances from the system. During normal operation, wear and tear of the valves, pumps and other components cause tiny particles of metal to break off and go into suspension in the fluid. These particles must be removed by the filter to prolong the life of the various components and to avoid abrasion.

Most hydraulic systems are fitted with a filter bypass valve. This will open under pressure if the filter becomes blocked which ensures that the fluid cycle is completed, and the system continues to operate.

A hydraulic system requires a pump to power the system and ensure that fluid under pressure is delivered to the actuators when required. In the simplest hydraulic systems, the pump is provided by a piston and cylinder arrangement that increases the fluid pressure when pressed. This is how many light aircraft braking systems operate.

Larger aircraft make use of a primary engine-driven hydraulic pump alongside an auxiliary electric pump in the event that the primary pump fails. Typically the hydraulic systems in these aircraft drive not only the braking system but also flaps and landing gear retraction systems.

Some aircraft are also supplied with a hand-operated pump which can be used in an emergency, or when the aircraft is on the ground and the engine is not operating.

An aircraft may also be fitted with a Ram Air Turbine (RAT) which is a small wind turbine that is deployed into the freestream in the event of a pump failure. The turbine can then be used to power a backup hydraulic pump in an emergency such as an engine failure which would otherwise cause the system to lose hydraulic pressure.

Pumps can be classified as either positive displacement or non-positive displacement. A positive displacement pump is the most common type used in hydraulic applications and works by trapping a fixed amount of fluid at the pump inlet and forcing (displacing) that trapped volume into the discharge pipe at the outlet.

A common positive displacement pump found in aircraft hydraulic systems is the gear pump. These pumps consist of two counter-rotating gears which are meshed to create a pressure through the transport of a fixed volume of fluid per revolution. The pump takes fluid from the suction or input side and transports it to the discharge or output side of the pump.

One of the gears is driven by the aircraft engine via an accessory drive. The other gear is free to rotate and is driven by the driving gear. The inlet side of the pump is connected to the reservoir and the outlet to the pressure line. Fluid is captured by the teeth in the inlet and then travels around the pump housing and deposited at the outlet.

Gear pumps require some form of system protection as they will keep delivering fluid to the outlet as long as they are running, irrespective of the outlet pressure. It is common to install a pressure cut-off valve directly upstream of the pump to direct fluid back to the reservoir if the pressure becomes too great.

A variable volume pump will deliver a volume of fluid proportional to the demands of the particular system. A compensator built into the pump automatically regulates the pump output based on the system pressure. A gear pump with a pressure cut-off valve acts in the same way.

A selector valve is used to control the direction of movement of a hydraulic actuating cylinder or similar device. A selector valve creates a path for fluid to flow into one side of the actuator and out the other. The flow direction can often be reversed which allows the actuator to move in either direction.

Control of the pressure within a hydraulic system is necessary for the safe operation of the system. Some valves are designed to relieve pressure so that the system doesn’t reach dangerous operating pressures, while others regulate the pressure within a defined range.

There are two common pressure relief valves used in an aircraft hydraulic system. System relief valves act as a safety device against overpressure as a result of the failure of a pump, regulator or similar device. These valves are fitted directly downstream of the pump and will open at a set pressure, relieving the system by returning fluid to the reservoir.

A pressure regulator valve is used in a hydraulic system where a constant delivery type pump is operating. Since a constant delivery pump is unable to regulate its own pressure, a valve situated just downstream of the pump can be opened or closed to either increase or decrease the pressure which keeps the system pressure within a defined operating range. Fully opening the valve will divert all flow from the system back into the reservoir allowing the pump to turn without resistance. This is termed “unloading the pump”.

An accumulator provides a means to store fluid under pressure at different points throughout the system which can then be used to dampen pressure surges or supplement the pump under high operating loads. Accumulators also provide limited system operation in the event of a failure of the pump.

A common accumulator used in aircraft hydraulic systems is the spherical type which consists of two spherical chambers separated by a rubber or synthetic diaphragm. The top half of the accumulator is designed to accept fluid under pressure, which reacts against air or nitrogen housed in the lower half of the accumulator. The hydraulic pressure will compress the gas until the pressure in the two chambers is equal. When a hydraulic actuator is required to operate, the accumulator located nearest the actuator will feed fluid under pressure directly to the actuator, reducing the pressure in the accumulator which is then replenished by the system pump. This allows for a more rapid actuation than would otherwise be possible, eliminating any lag from the mechanical pump.

A rotary actuator converts the pressure differential set up by the hydraulic system into a rotary motion, usually through a rack-and-pinion arrangement. This is a common arrangement used in a hydraulically assisted nose-wheel steering mechanism.