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Also known as gear pumps, these produce a smooth flow of liquid for applications such as cooling engines, powering hydraulic equipment, and extracting liquid from holding tanks. Pumps are self-priming after you fill the pump chamber with liquid. As liquid in the chamber is expelled, a suction force is created which allows the pump to draw liquid upward. Do not use with solids.

Pumps with an open dripproof (ODP) motor are for use in clean, dry, and well-ventilated environments. They have a relief valve to prevent pressure buildup.

Note: Pumps must be filled with liquid before use. They need a constant flow of liquid and cannot run dry. If flow control is needed, place valves or reducers on the discharge side; never restrict the inlet of a pump with a valve or reducer.

Mount these pumps in any position, even upside down. Pumps have a subfractional horsepower motor rated for intermittent use (return to room temperature before restarting). Also known as diaphragm pumps, they are for use in low-flow spraying, draining, and washdown applications. They are self-priming, which means they create a suction force to draw liquid upward. Pumps can run dry and do not require an initial fill, so they’re a good choice for applications without a constant flow of liquid. Do not use with solids.

Rated for continuous use, this pump is often used to move caustics such as antifreeze and salt water. Mount it in any position, even upside down. Also known as a diaphragm pump, it is typically used for low-flow spraying, draining, and washdown applications. Pump has a pressure switch that automatically shuts off the pump at the maximum pressure. It is self-priming, which means it creates a suction force to draw liquid upward. Pump can run dry and does not require an initial fill, so it’s a good choice for applications without a constant flow of liquid. Do not use with solids.

With a 316 stainless steel housing and stainless steel gears, these pumps are often used to dispense chemicals such as ethylene glycol, isopropyl alcohol, and nitric acid. Use an electric motor with a coupling and belt/pulley drive. Also known as gear pumps, they produce a smooth flow of liquid. All are self-priming, which means they create a suction force to draw liquid upward and fill the pump chamber. Do not use with solids.

A cast iron housing and steel gears allow these pumps to be used to dispense oil and fuel such as hydraulic oil and diesel fuel. Select your own motor to tailor them to your application. Use an air or electric motor with a coupling and belt/pulley drive. Also known as gear pumps, they produce a smooth flow of liquid for applications such as engine lubrication. All are self-priming, which means they create a suction force to draw liquid upward and fill the pump chamber. Do not use with solids.

These pumps have a bronze housing and gears for use with water. Select your own motor to tailor them to your application. Use a NEMA 56C frame electric motor with a coupling and belt/pulley drive. Also known as gear pumps, they produce a smooth flow of liquid for water delivery. All are self-priming, which means they create a suction force to draw liquid upward and fill the pump chamber. Do not use with solids.

Use these pumps to move lubricating oil such as hydraulic and motor oil. Also known as flexible impeller pumps, they create a suction force that can draw liquid upward to fill the pump chamber when your liquid source is below the pump. The impeller resists clogging and wear. Select a spark-free air motor for hazardous environments or attach an electric motor with a speed reducer or a belt pulley to alter the pump speed.

Also known as flexible impeller pumps, these create a suction force that can draw liquid upward to fill the pump chamber when your liquid source is below the pump. The impeller resists clogging and wear. Select a spark-free air motor for hazardous environments or attach an electric motor with a speed reducer or a belt pulley to alter the pump speed.

Commonly called piston pumps, these are often used in high-pressure applications, such as hydrostatic testing of pipelines, tanks, and valves. Flow and outlet liquid pressure can be controlled by varying the air pressure. To calculate discharge liquid pressure, multiply the air pressure by the ratio shown in the table. Pumps are self-priming, which means they create a suction force to draw liquid upward to fill the pump chamber.

This pump has a totally enclosed nonventilated (TENV) motor that is cooled by the liquid being pumped. Also known as a flexible impeller pump, it creates a suction force that can draw liquid upward to fill the pump chamber when your liquid source is below the pump. Mount up to 6 feet above your liquid source. Pump can pass solids up to 1/4" in diameter without clogging, so there’s no need to filter sediment and debris. A handle makes it convenient for on-the-go removal of bilge water, waste oil, and spills. Pump can also be used to cool marine engines and drain liquid from holding tanks.

Convenient to keep in your toolkit for on-site cleanup, these pumps attach to your drill for small liquid extraction jobs, as well as draining water from clogged sinks and emptying tanks. Pumps are self-priming, which means they create a suction force to draw liquid upward. Do not use with solids.

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The XR416 is part of the North Ridge XR series - a line of self-priming centrifugal pumps that are designed for heavy duty operation within the construction, industrial, emergency and marine industries.

Designed for the handling of clean, solid laden, flammable and abrasive liquids, its unique internal armoured volute protects the main pump casing from wear and fluid contact, by absorbing any impact from the pressurised liquid.

The XR series are rapid self-priming pumps, capable of priming from 4M in under 2 minutes due to its uniquely designed double-curved impeller optimised for high efficiency (up to 74%) without compromise to solid passage and priming time. This model can handle solids up to 50mm x 30mm in size.

Each pump within the XR series is also constructed with an enduring design philosophy. A wide range of material options are available ranging from Cast Iron to Bronze, Stainless Steel and hardened material alternatives. This allows for maximum efficiency in any application as well as providing reliability and longevity. Our unique construction means many ranges share the same internal parts reducing stock holding of associated spare parts across models.

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Most experts agree that the majority of centrifugal pump problems occur on the suction side of the pump. Based solely on my experience, I would state the percentage is at least 80 percent, and in the case of self-priming pumps I am sure the percentage is higher.

Even a self-priming pump has to be primed prior to the first operation. No matter the manufacturer, there is a priming chamber (integral or external) or some portion of the volute that will require filling prior to startup. Please read the manual and/or contact the manufacturer for details. There are other methods to prime a pump, which include ancillary pumps, vacuum, vacuum ejectors and/or eductors. This article only addresses liquid self-priming centrifugal pumps.

Sometimes the pump will require manual re-priming after the initial prime. There can be several reasons for re-priming, one of the most common is evaporation of the fluid, and other reasons include leakage, pump movement and other maintenance related matters.

At sea level in a perfect world, you can theoretically lift 65-degree water 34 feet with a self-primer. I normally caution users to limit their suction lift to a maximum of 25 feet due to factors such as fluid temperature (think vapor pressure), specific gravity, friction, system leakage, pump inefficiencies and elevation above sea level.

Place the pump as close as possible to the suction source. Usually 25 to 30 feet is the maximum recommended distance. Prudent system design dictates that the suction pipe length be held to a minimum to promote long pump life. Every section of suction piping equates to a volume of air that must be removed when the pump starts. Best practices say to reduce priming time to a minimum.

Some system designers will add foot valves to mitigate the prime time and strainers to preclude the introduction of solids into the pump. A foot valve is in essence a check valve placed at the beginning (bottom) of the suction line. My experience is that foot valves add undesired friction and will leak or fail closed (or partially closed) at some point. I typically do not recommend foot valves for use on commercial and industrial self-primer applications. For similar reasons I do not recommend suction strainers. If the pump cannot handle solids and a strainer is utilized, monitor the differential pressure across the strainer. Most industrial self-priming pumps are of robust design and can handle passing solids, but check with the manufacturer. Note: A few applications may perform better with a foot valve.

I frequently need to point out to end users that the suction line on a self-primer pump in operation is at less than atmospheric pressure and so there will not be a leak of the liquid out of the suction line. There can, however, be a leak of air into the line. It is possible to have a suction line at 20 inches of Hg (vacuum) when the pump is operating. As a tip for field problem solving, I frequently use plastic wrap around the flanges or suspected areas to test for ingress leaks.

Simply as a general guideline, if your pump takes more than four minutes to prime than you should shut the pump down and look for and correct the cause of the problem.

The air in the suction side of the system being displaced by the liquid has to have somewhere to go, otherwise the pump will air bind. Centrifugal pumps are not compressors. Water is approximately 840 times denser than air. As an example if a pump was rated at a discharge pressure of 210 psig pumping water, the pump could theoretically compress air to approximately one quarter of a pound (0.25 psig) (210 psig divided by 840 is equal to 0.25). If the pump discharge valve and/or the discharge check valve are shut, the generated pressure of 0.25 psig will not be able to overcome the valves.

Within the confines of the article I will simply state that the air must be vented to an area of lower pressure for the pump to properly prime. There are many acceptable methods to accomplish the process, please contact your pump manufacturer or the author.

Most experienced pump users know that as a general rule you should always design the suction line to be one size larger than the pump suction. Self–priming pumps are an exception, and the suction piping should be the same size as the pump suction. The infraction of the rules is encouraged because of the added air volume that bigger suction lines require. More air means more priming time.

The suction pipe should rise continuously to the pump and not higher. In the field, I frequently see suction pipes with high points before the pump suction usually due to obstructions. These high points become a place for the air and other non-condensable gases to collect and will bind the pump suction line. Never install piping that is smaller than the pump suction in any pump.

The sump you are drawing from will likely have operating levels that are constantly changing. At some value of minimum submergence it will be possible for the system to create a vortex and air bind the pump. I covered submergence in the last article, but simply defined, it is the minimum distance from the top of the fluid to the center of the suction line that will prevent a vortex from initiation. Even if you do not completely air bind, the pump performance can be affected.

This problem occurs more often in areas that have infrequent freezing weather, but can happen anywhere the temperature will drop below freezing for an hour or more. The fluid in the priming chamber of the pump, usually water, will solidify if the ambient temperature drops below freezing for a sufficient period of time. When water freezes it expands and the casing will crack. The casing will require replacement at a high cost. Either drain the fluid out of the pump or supply a heat source when the ambient temperature is predicted to be below freezing.

Unlike an ANSI pump, the impeller will stay in place on most self-primers for a period of time (unless it is an ANSI self-primer. Eventually the impeller may come loose and damage the pump. The backward-running impeller generally will create about 50 percent of the rated flow and, depending on the impeller specific speed (NS), will generate about 50 percent of the rated head. Reduced efficiency of the wrong rotation will likely prevent it from priming or operating correctly but in the simplest of suction lift cases.

The pump performance must be de-rated for higher elevation changes (less absolute pressure less NPSHa). If the pump is engine driven in lieu of an electric motor, the resulting intermittent torque introduces limitations to the shaft design capabilities.

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Choosing the right slurry pump for the job is essential in efficiently transporting large volumes of materials, effectively saving time and money. Most importantly, using a submersible slurry pump with the proper flow rate, head, impeller, and agitator will expedite the process. The size and shape of the head and the discharge outlet determine the flow rate of a slurry pump. The pump head sucks in sludge, sand, and rocks, while the discharge outlet sends out the material.

The submersible slurry pump comes with an open stand or strainer design, and an agitator or impeller to prevent too large rocks from entering and clogging the pump. Next, the larger the head and discharge outlet, the more material can be moved. A slurry hose connects to the discharge outlet to transport the materials. Because the submersible slurry pump is in water, there is no need to prime the pump, thus providing a very efficient way of moving slurry.

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Pacer Pumps can be used to transfer water or mild chemistries in certain processing applications. Our pumps can be used to keep worksites and excavations dry when dewatering is needed and they can help remove water from flooded landscape and structures. Pacer Pumps can also be used for dust control or pre-treatment and de-icing applications where brine tanks are utilized for treatment of roads and runways. Pacer Pumps can also be found on hydro seeding equipment used by landscape companies.

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Cavitation is the most damaging. A dictionary defines cavitation as “the formation of partial vacuums in a flowing liquid as a result of the separation of its parts. When these collapse, pitting or other damage is caused on metal surfaces in contact”. In pumping systems, negative pressure can and will be created in certain areas. If this negative pressure exceeds the vapor pressure of the liquid being pumped, vacuum bubbles form and remain until they migrate through the system and find enough local pressure to cause their collapse. When these vacuum bubbles collapse, the concentrated force of implosion can exceed 100,000 PSI. If this implosion occurs next to metal, it is likely to cause a tiny chip to flake off the surface.

Cavitation will sound like the pump has rocks or marbles going through it. The most accurate way to detect cavitation is to take gauge readings [both suction and discharge], obtain an accurate speed [rpm] of the pump shaft, then look at the pump performance curve to determine where the pump is operating. If the suction gauge reading is higher than it should be, the problem will be suction cavitation. The cause could be: blockage in suction line [clear blockage]; Suction line too small [increase size of line]; suction lift too high [raise the off level or get the pump closer to the water].

If the discharge gauge reading is too high, the pump will be suffering discharge or “tip” cavitation. The discharge line could be blocked [remove blockage], or the discharge line could be too small, or the static head could be too high. These conditions can often be overcome by increasing pump speed, but check gauge readings against manufacturer’s performance curve to determine the correct course of action.

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Dry running a pump can cause all kinds of serious problems, yet many operators are unaware of the dangers. When a pump runs dry, it generates heat and force it was never designed to handle, leading to wear and tear that can quickly add up to inflated repair costs. Avoiding dry running is highly important, but it makes sense to learn how negative it can be in order to fully understand the severity of the phenomenon.

When a pump runs dry, it runs without any liquid going through it. This is always a bad idea, as it puts an inordinate amount of strain on the pump’s moving parts.

Instead of circulating fluid, a dry running pump pushes nothing but air around, leading to friction, heat, and destruction of delicate internals. A hydraulic pump is normally designed to run while filled with fluid. As it runs, the fluid inside it helps to preserve its internal pieces, cooling them and even assisting in centreing moving elements such as the rotor.

Pumps that operate at particularly high pressure can suffer considerable cavitation simply from fluid-derived vapor; completely dry running a finely tuned pump is significantly worse for its longevity. Even self-priming pumps should only be run once the proper amount of fluid is inside, as they can withstand only partial dry conditions while priming themselves.

Running your hydraulic pump dry is likely to result in disaster, wearing it out prematurely via the aforementioned heat, violent vibrations, or complete lock-up/seizure of important parts, costing you money to fix or replace.

Running a hydraulic pump dry can lead to a large variety of issues with the pump’s parts and the rest of your hydraulic system as well. Here are a few common problems that dry running can cause:

High temperatures caused by dry running can ruin your pump, pitting its housing and causing leaks.¹ If heat and pressure are excessive enough, the housing boss may deform, potentially stopping your impeller from rotating freely and rendering your pump functionally useless. In many cases, a severely damaged, leaking pump is likely to need replacing, which can run your costs up much further than anticipated.

As is the case for the housing of your pump, the impeller is susceptible to damage done by excessive heat during use. Dry running your pump causes friction, and this friction is strong enough to heat up the impeller, causing it to melt.² Even minor melting is severely detrimental to your pump’s performance, potentially causing it to seize up and stop working at all. Taking it apart for repair is usually an involved and costly exercise best avoided through preventive operating practices.

Internal wear caused by dry running your pump can lead to additional wear throughout the entirety of your system. This is generally caused by either excessive heat or metal particles scraped from disintegrating moving pieces within your pump travelling through the rest of your system. Metal particles, in particular, can cut and clog valve components, pipes, and tubes, leading to system failure over time.

You may need to run your pump dry for short periods of time to empty the system completely, but it is best to keep such instances as brief as possible. Once your tank or system has been emptied by the pump, it should be turned off. Do not allow it to keep running for more than a minute without any fluid.

Keeping someone in charge of monitoring your pump as it runs can help avoid unintended dry running problems. Often, a pump may be left running until a job is completed. If the pump performs its function faster than intended and all fluid is purged from the system, it will run dry and damage itself until an operator returns to turn it off. Having someone manage the pump at all times is crucial to keeping it functional.

Some companies have found an automatic means of controlling their pumps’ functions from afar. By leveraging special protective devices and control systems, it is possible to automatically stop a pump that is in danger of running dry, preserving its internal parts and averting expensive disasters.³ However, such devices incur an additional cost.

At White House Products, Ltd., we offer all manner ofpump parts to patch up a system damaged by dry running. We can also provide complete replacements as needed. Call our technical support team at +44 (0)1475 742500 to learn how we can help get your pump working again.

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Our self priming pumps are ideally suited for areas with high water tables, such as Louisiana and Florida, and they’re an ideal product when it comes to pumping liquids containing up to 3″ of solids. We have both low and high pressure settings available and our sizes range from 2″ to 12″. So, whether you’re looking for new pumps for a wastewater treatment plant, fire department, or construction site, you can count on the high-quality products from Phantom Pumps.

All of our pumps come backed by a one-year factory warranty, giving you peace of mind that your investment is protected. Our distributors are located throughout the southeastern United States and we can ship our pumps anywhere across the globe, usually requiring only a couple of days for delivery after the initial order is filed. Additionally, we have a 24-hour support system in place to ensure our customers have access to any information they need whenever they may need it.

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Submersible pumps are frequently used to extract water from inside tanks or from rivers but what is it about submersible pumps that makes them chosen - what are the other options when repeated failure occurs or when flammable liquids need transferring? Should you contemplate using an ATEX submersible pump?

Submersible pumps are designed for pumping with the motor and pump both immersed in the liquid, and control of the pump is activated by float switches and typically submerged into a tank or pit.

True self priming pumps however, are surface mounted pumps which draw water from below (typically up to 8M) without the need for a non-return valve. They are kept outside the liquid, and can either be exposed to the elements or within a structure such as a pump house, and driven electrically, hydraulically or via an engine.

Usually, a submersible pump is the easy option and requires the least amount of engineering, but there are many advantages to using a self-priming pump over a submersible pump, and these can be split into three categories – maintenance, design features and liquid handling, but why choose a self-priming pump over a submersible pump?

Submersible pumps are unsuitable for fluids like fuels, solvents, chemicals or other flammable liquids; one reason is because they could ignite when heated, and the other is because should they enter into the motor of a submersible pump, the liquids may not be chemically compatible with the pump casing, inner parts and cable glands. ATEX submersible pumps are increasingly being discontinued and for good reason! Self-priming pumps are a much better solution, given that should a seal fail in a submersible pump, ignition can occur.

Usually, a submersible pump will be kept cool by the fluid it’s immersed in, but as a result, the liquid around the pump motor heats up potentially causing an issue. Over time the cable glands on the motor will wear and the liquid will penetrate, eventually causing voltage leakage and the motor to trip. With a self-priming pump however, the number of different parts in contact with the fluid is far less, and should oil contamination occur in the fluid being pumped, it is generally only a small issue should it arise without your understanding. Furthermore, with submersible pumps, this can result in the cable gland becoming brittle, or swelling and leaking can occur which will cause the complete pump to fail.

Any submersible pump which is located at the bottom of any pit can be subject to grit ingress and quite often a submersible pump in a silty environment will be tied to a suspended bar above the pit to prevent it from becoming clogged with silt. By using a self-priming pump though, only the inlet pipe needs to be immersed into the fluid without additional chains or ropes, which can corrode over time.

Self-priming pumps can be used for more viscous liquids such as oils, creams, chemicals, and other foodstuffs but a submersible pump isn’t practical for pumping these types of fluid.

In sewage applications wet wipes, which are not designed to be flushed, are a huge issue for submersible pumps and typically stop the impeller from rotating as the wipes don"t break up easily; this causes the majority of premature failures and are a hassle to remove. With a self-priming pump however, wet wipes can be pumped and do not cause an issue – but if a blockage does occur, then maintenance is far easier on a surface mounted pump than a submersed one.

As submersible pumps are fitted in pits they are not easily visible and usually the first sign of an issue is when the pump stops working. It’s at this point that the fault is then investigated, requiring a confined space entry team before the pump can be removed, involves several people, oxygen and is a costly exercise with the potential for long periods of downtime. Even if the pumps are mounted on to guide rails or chains, these can corrode over time meaning entry is required to resolve.

Service intervals on submersible pumps tend to be more frequent due to the complete unit being immersed in the liquid. Cable gland entry points need to be checked and replaced after five years as the rubber can wear and/or shrink on the cable glands leading to ingress. Also due to their nature of being ‘out of sight out of mind’, they can be neglected if a maintenance schedule is not put in place.

With a surface mounted self-priming pump there are various signals which can indicate maintenance is required such as signs of seal leakage, and if bearings are wearing there will be an audible noise. Suction and pressure gauges can be mounted onto the pump to ensure the pump is operating on the curve. As the pump is not submerged in the liquid they are also not subject to as harsh conditions, in particular in areas where freezing may occur such as in water abstraction from Canals, lakes or rivers.

The design features of self-priming pumps offer additional peace of mind to customers. These pumps can last up to 20 years through their design, whereas a submersible pump will typically last up to five before heavy overhaul or maintenance is required.

Self-priming pumps are fitted with wear rings to optimise efficiency, and are of heavy duty design with an additional bearing so that they don’t solely rely on the bearing of the motor. There are separate shafts within self-priming pumps for the pump head and motor, ensuring that should the shaft or motor need replacing, these can be done so without the complete unit needing to be replaced too. Having twin shafts is a far more durable design as the load is shared between two shafts.

Furthermore, in a self-priming pump should the seal wear or fail, the liquid will not directly enter the motor, whereas on a submersible pump, this can cause the complete unit to fail. Submersible pump motors are usually immersed in oil and should the mechanical seal fail the oil will also contaminate the fluid being pumped. To repair the motor on a submersible pump after water ingress has occurred, it typically involves rewinding the motor, replacing the oil and possibly the capacitor too - meaning it may be more cost effective to replace the entire pump.

The motors on self-priming pumps are separate to the pump ensuring ease of replacement, but in the majority of submersible pumps the complete unit requires disassembling. Furthermore a self-priming pump can be maintained without disconnecting the pump from the pipework and is a far more robust solution.

Sometimes a submersible pump is specified due to low NPSH conditions, however a self-priming side channel pump can accommodate an NPSH as low as 0.5M for tank emptying or where liquids have a low vapour pressure and are in a sealed tank.

Although a self-priming pump initially has a larger outlay and requires additional engineering in order to accommodate the pump and suction pipework, it is a more robust, long term engineered solution and is economical during its lifetime. Typically during the lifetime of an application, a submersible pump will be replaced four times more than a self-priming pump. Therefore, we would recommend a self-priming pump be fitted as opposed to a submersible pump. Another alternative to a submersible pump is an immersed pump, whereby the motor is kept out of the fluid making it a more robust design compared to that of a submersible pump.

There are several types of self-priming pumps that we can specify depending upon the application. Some can handle entrained gases, be suitable for dry running and be sealless, but considerations also need to be given to the fluid being pumped.

We do not recommend submersible pumps to be used in ATEX environments and would select a more appropriate self-priming or immersed pump with a motor outside the fluid being pumped.