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There are typically three types of hydraulic pump constructions found in mobile hydraulic applications. These include gear, piston, and vane; however, there are also clutch pumps, dump pumps, and pumps for refuse vehicles such as dry valve pumps and Muncie Power Products’ Live PakTM.

The hydraulic pump is the component of the hydraulic system that takes mechanical energy and converts it into fluid energy in the form of oil flow. This mechanical energy is taken from what is called the prime mover (a turning force) such as the power take-off or directly from the truck engine.

With each hydraulic pump, the pump will be of either a uni-rotational or bi-rotational design. As its name implies, a uni-rotational pump is designed to operate in one direction of shaft rotation. On the other hand, a bi-rotational pump has the ability to operate in either direction.

For truck-mounted hydraulic systems, the most common design in use is the gear pump. This design is characterized as having fewer moving parts, being easy to service, more tolerant of contamination than other designs and relatively inexpensive. Gear pumps are fixed displacement, also called positive displacement, pumps. This means the same volume of flow is produced with each rotation of the pump’s shaft. Gear pumps are rated in terms of the pump’s maximum pressure rating, cubic inch displacement and maximum input speed limitation.

Generally, gear pumps are used in open center hydraulic systems. Gear pumps trap oil in the areas between the teeth of the pump’s two gears and the body of the pump, transport it around the circumference of the gear cavity and then force it through the outlet port as the gears mesh. Behind the brass alloy thrust plates, or wear plates, a small amount of pressurized oil pushes the plates tightly against the gear ends to improve pump efficiency.

A cylinder block containing pistons that move in and out is housed within a piston pump. It’s the movement of these pistons that draw oil from the supply port and then force it through the outlet. The angle of the swash plate, which the slipper end of the piston rides against, determines the length of the piston’s stroke. While the swash plate remains stationary, the cylinder block, encompassing the pistons, rotates with the pump’s input shaft. The pump displacement is then determined by the total volume of the pump’s cylinders. Fixed and variable displacement designs are both available.

With a fixed displacement piston pump, the swash plate is nonadjustable. Its proportional output flow to input shaft speed is like that of a gear pump and like a gear pump, the fixed displacement piston pump is used within open center hydraulic systems.

As previously mentioned, piston pumps are also used within applications like snow and ice control where it may be desirable to vary system flow without varying engine speed. This is where the variable displacement piston pump comes into play – when the hydraulic flow requirements will vary based on operating conditions. Unlike the fixed displacement design, the swash plate is not fixed and its angle can be adjusted by a pressure signal from the directional valve via a compensator.

Vane pumps were, at one time, commonly used on utility vehicles such as aerial buckets and ladders. Today, the vane pump is not commonly found on these mobile (truck-mounted) hydraulic systems as gear pumps are more widely accepted and available.

Within a vane pump, as the input shaft rotates it causes oil to be picked up between the vanes of the pump which is then transported to the pump’s outlet side. This is similar to how gear pumps work, but there is one set of vanes – versus a pair of gears – on a rotating cartridge in the pump housing. As the area between the vanes decreases on the outlet side and increases on the inlet side of the pump, oil is drawn in through the supply port and expelled through the outlet as the vane cartridge rotates due to the change in area.

Input shaft rotates, causing oil to be picked up between the vanes of the pump which is then transported to pump outlet side as area between vanes decreases on outlet side and increases on inlet side to draw oil through supply port and expel though outlet as vane cartridge rotates

A clutch pump is a small displacement gear pump equipped with a belt-driven, electromagnetic clutch, much like that found on a car’s air conditioner compressor. It is engaged when the operator turns on a switch inside the truck cab. Clutch pumps are frequently used where a transmission power take-off aperture is not provided or is not easily accessible. Common applications include aerial bucket trucks, wreckers and hay spikes. As a general rule clutch pumps cannot be used where pump output flows are in excess of 15 GPM as the engine drive belt is subject to slipping under higher loads.

What separates this pump from the traditional gear pump is its built-in pressure relief assembly and an integral three-position, three-way directional control valve. The dump pump is unsuited for continuous-duty applications because of its narrow, internal paths and the subsequent likelihood of excessive heat generation.

Dump pumps are often direct mounted to the power take-off; however, it is vital that the direct-coupled pumps be rigidly supported with an installer-supplied bracket to the transmission case with the pump’s weight at 70 lbs. With a dump pump, either a two- or three-line installation must be selected (two-line and three-line refer to the number of hoses used to plumb the pump); however, a dump pump can easily be converted from a two- to three-line installation. This is accomplished by inserting an inexpensive sleeve into the pump’s inlet port and uncapping the return port.

Many dump bodies can function adequately with a two-line installation if not left operating too long in neutral. When left operating in neutral for too long however, the most common dump pump failure occurs due to high temperatures. To prevent this failure, a three-line installation can be selected – which also provides additional benefits.

Pumps for refuse equipment include both dry valve and Live Pak pumps. Both conserve fuel while in the OFF mode, but have the ability to provide full flow when work is required. While both have designs based on that of standard gear pumps, the dry valve and Like Pak pumps incorporate additional, special valving.

Primarily used on refuse equipment, dry valve pumps are large displacement, front crankshaft-driven pumps. The dry valve pump encompasses a plunger-type valve in the pump inlet port. This special plunger-type valve restricts flow in the OFF mode and allows full flow in the ON mode. As a result, the horsepower draw is lowered, which saves fuel when the hydraulic system is not in use.

In the closed position, the dry valve allows just enough oil to pass through to maintain lubrication of the pump. This oil is then returned to the reservoir through a bleed valve and small return line. A bleed valve that is fully functioning is critical to the life of this type of pump, as pump failure induced by cavitation will result if the bleed valve becomes clogged by contaminates. Muncie Power Products also offer a butterfly-style dry valve, which eliminates the bleed valve requirement and allows for improved system efficiency.

It’s important to note that with the dry valve, wear plates and shaft seals differ from standard gear pumps. Trying to fit a standard gear pump to a dry valve likely will result in premature pump failure.

Encompasses plunger-type valve in the pump inlet port restricting flow in OFF mode, but allows full flow in ON mode lowering horsepower draw to save fuel when not in use

Wear plates and shaft seals differ from standard gear pumps – trying to fit standard gear pump to dry valve likely will result in premature pump failure

Live Pak pumps are also primarily used on refuse equipment and are engine crankshaft driven; however, the inlet on a Live Pak pump is not outfitted with a shut-off valve. With a Live Pak pump, the outlet incorporates a flow limiting valve. This is called a Live Pak valve. The valve acts as an unloading valve in OFF mode and a flow limiting valve in the ON mode. As a result, the hydraulic system speed is limited to keep within safe operating parameters.

Outlet incorporates flow limiting valve called Live Pak valve – acts as an unloading valve in OFF mode and flow limiting valve in ON mode restricting hydraulic system speed to keep within safe operating parameters

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Williams Controls products comprise: electronic, hydraulic and pneumatic throttle controls, and adjustable pedal systems for use on all types of commercial vehicles.

Flow Products, Incorporated (www.flowprod.com), a leading fluid power products and systems distributor located in Chicago and servicing the mid-western region has an immediate opening for a dynamic and driven outside sales engineer. Summary: Successful candidate will have a proven track record of selling value, identifying customer pain and promoting products and services offered by the company that meet customer application requirements. Must be an effective communicator, highly customer focused and driven toward achieving results. Experience with hydraulic and pneumatic products is preferred

Flow Products has developed a new program for supplying hydraulic power units to the industry. Our program features a selection of engineered power units designed to meet the demands of most industrial applications. All required components are stocked in our warehouse, ready for quick assembly and test. We offer delivery for listed units of less than 1 week. Pump selection includes gear and vane type with reservoirs ranging from 10 to 30 gals. Call us today so that we may review your application with one of our engineers. We will help select the right product for your specific application. With our technical support and quick product delivery, we can help get you back into production.

With the continuing supply chain constraints, finding high quality and reliable hydraulic power units presents a major challenge to our customers. To address this problem, Flow Products is offering a sale on the Bucher M-3534 series power unit.

Ashay graduated from the University of Illinois at Chicago in May 2021 with a degree in Mechanical engineering. He specializes in 3d modeling and drawing and will be responsible for designing hydraulic systems, configurations, fabrications drawings. His major school project goal was to modify a previously existing ice maker that would accept cartridges that form different ice shapes such as spheres, football shapes, and diamonds automatically. With his successful design, and a working prototype, Ashay was awarded “Best in Autonomous Product Development” certificate by the department of engineering at UIC

Summary: Successful candidate will have a proven track record of selling value, identifying customer pain and promoting products and services offered by the company that meet customer application requirements. Must be an effective communicator, highly customer focused and driven toward achieving results. Experience with hydraulic and pneumatic products is preferred

The HP4G series pump is designed for the hydrostatic transmission. By changing the angle of the swash plate, stepless adjustment of two-way flow can be achieved. At present, this product has three different displacement specifications of 60, 100, and 175cc/r available.

HP4G closed circuit pump can reach a rated pressure of 400-450bar and a maximum pressure of 450-500bar. At the same time, the product is designed with special highspeed rotating components and bearings, which can meet the application requirements of customers for harsh working conditions such as high pressure, high speed, and frequent impact.

Anfield Industries’ stocks a wide range of fixed displacement vane pumps and their replacement parts that are fully interchangeable with common OEM pumps such Parker®/Denison® and Eaton®/Vickers®

The TY52 Series is the temperature transmitter with a PT100 RTD sensor and an array of stem lengths. All configurations include 4/20mA, 4/20mA + HART, 1/5VDC or MODBUS communication options; allowing you to connect to any PLC or PAC device.

Our IFSP (International Fluid Power Society) certified fluid power specialists can provide system designs, troubleshooting, inspection, diagnostics and repair of hydraulic and pneumatic systems. The programs we offer have been developed to provide key preventative hydraulic needs in order to improve uptime and maximize productivity at your facility.

Muneeb is a Chemical engineering graduate from the University of Illinois atChicago. His responsibilities will include the design of hydraulic power units, system layouts, configurations, organizing and maintaining full document packages, fabrication drawings, test procedures, bills of materials, schematics, commissioning and customer training.

Flow Products, Incorporated (www.flowprod.com), a leading fluid power products and systems distributor located in Chicago and servicing the mid-western region has an immediate opening for a summer intern in our Marketing dept. The summer internship is a 10-week program designed to provide marketing experience through project work and related development. The position is full time for the 10 weeks and is a paid non-exempt position. Working hours are 7:45 AM to 4:45 PM Monday thru Friday

With over 50 years’ experience providing hydraulic solutions, Continental Hydraulics understands the needs of the market and has put together a complete line of pow er units that are rugged, durable, high performing and efficient – these units are used in some of the most challenging applications across the globe. With a commitment to market leading customer support and innovative engineering, Continental’s pow er units deliver the right performance for your demanding applications.

Our IFPS (International Fluid Power Society) certified fluid power specialists can design custom hydraulic, pneumatic or electro-mechanical systems that will improve reliability, performance and reduce operating costs.

Our IFPS (International Fluid Power Society) certified fluid power specialists can provide system designs, troubleshooting, inspection, diagnostics and repair of hydraulic and pneumatic systems. The programs we offer have been developed to provide key preventative hydraulic needs in order to improve uptime and maximize productivity at your facility. >> READ FULL ARTICLE

Flow Products is pleased to announce the addition of two new members to our team: Matt Darnell, Account Manager & Gil Ramos, Sales & Marketing Manager

Gil Ramos, Sales & Marketing Manager: Gil brings extensive combined experience in engineering and marketing working in key industries such as: Transportation, Semiconductor, Mining, Pulp & Paper, Construction and Energy.

The MXE-P screw driven actuators with profiled rail bearing offers high load and bending moment capacities in a low profile package. The MXE-P is designed for applications requiring moderate to heavy load carrying and guidance. This screw driven actuators features a profiled rail system with recirculating ball linear guides for optimal performance. www.tolomatic.com

Our mission is to be a leading global provider of hydraulic drive and control technologies. Utilizing high levels of technical expertise, we support our clients’ product development activities from the initial project phase to the finished machine. Smart Solutions. Superior Support. Join our world and look behind the scenes! www.bucherhydraulics.com

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Clamping cylinders, hydraulic power units with pneumatic motors, hand-pumps, valves, air-hydraulic and pneumatic jacks, bead-breakers and accessories.

Our website provides photographs, diagrams, and specifications for various product lines. If what you’re looking for does not appear to be on our site, please contact us.

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Repairing hydraulic cylinders may look like a reasonably simple task from the outside looking in but without the right tools and techniques, something as simple as repairing a hydraulic ram can become a nightmare.

We decided to share some of the knowledge we gathered over the last decade and answer some of the most common questions we come across when people attempt to repair hydraulic rams themselves.

Also known as cylinder bypass, this is can be caused by a number of different factors. Firstly, your hydraulic cylinder piston seals could just simply be old and over time start to reduce their effectiveness and wear to the point where there is not enough preload on the hydraulic seals to maintain a 100% positive seal.

This can be caused by many different factors, the most common ones we come across are, Piston nut loosening to the point of coming away from rod, wear strip and bearings could be worn and causing a metal on metal situation (not ideal in most cases), Dirty hydraulic oil, another hydraulic component failing and metal particles flowing into cylinder and casing damage to cylinder internals, worn/out of round cylinder barrel.

Sometimes we see hydraulic cylinder bypass caused by barrel ‘bulging’ in the centre and therefore creating a larger diameter in the centre of the barrel only allowing oil to travel around the piston and not hold the load required in that section of stroke.

The first and most simple way is to clean down the cylinder very well and look for any possible signs that something could be abnormal. External hydraulic oil leaks, dings/damage to the barrel OD that could be affecting the cylinder barrel ID, damage to the rod, bent, scored, broken or cracked weld around clevis/pin eye. These are all telltale signs that further investigation is required.

Any of the above usually means removing the cylinder from the machine and stripping down for inspection. It is very important that all the hydraulic cylinder internal components are thoroughly checked and measured as a diameter difference of only 0.2mm can cause grief.

This depends on a lot of factors, if we keep it straight forward and say that all the parts of the hydraulic cylinder are in serviceable condition then a simple hydraulic seal replacement should do the job.

In most cases, you will always need to remove the cylinder from service, strip completely, clean and measure so you can rebuild it. This should stop a hydraulic cylinder from leaking if all the parts are in serviceable condition.

Depending on the design and the type of hydraulic system this can be answered in a number of ways. If we choose a standard type double-acting cylinder, oil in bottom for extend, oil in the top rod side for retract, these cylinders whether they be in a closed or open loop hydraulic system should be able to self-bleed air as the return flow and air goes back to the hydraulic tank it will breathe to the atmosphere. In some cases, like if the hoses or pipework to the cylinder is extremely long or full stroke of the cylinder is not possible you could end up with air inside the cylinder. Air is not ideal in hydraulic systems and care should always be taken to minimise this.

In all cases, if you suspect there to be air in the hydraulic system please take some time to learn how your system operates and how it was designed before jumping in with spanners. Safety is paramount in this type of hydraulic maintenance and bleeding cylinders can be very dangerous to an untrained person.

First things first, SAFETY. Take time to inspect the machine and study the area in which you need to work. Understand the hydraulic system you are working on to a level where you know without question if there is any stored energy present (accumulators, heavy load on cylinders, machine parked on a hill etc), any danger that could hurt yourself or any other person.

Once you have the machine locked out and you are certain there is no stored energy left in the lines you will need to then remove both ends that fix the cylinder to the piece of hydraulic equipment. Handy Hint; Be sure to remove the hoses/pipe work and plug both the cylinder ports and the hoses/pipework first..

Removing a cylinder from a hydraulic system can be a messy job, ensure you contain any hydraulic oil spill that could occur. Plug and cap both the hydraulic hoses and/or pipework along with the ports on the cylinder to ensure no oil is spilt in transit.

This is where very specialised equipment is required for the stripping and assembling stages. Most times these larger type cylinders need to be loaded on a hydraulic strip bench so the rod, gland and piston can be pulled apart with hydraulic force. In these cases, the piston nut will require slow and controlled hydraulic force to be removed and reinstalled safely.

To remove the seals from the piston and the gland a set of seal picks is the best option. They come in a variety of shapes and styles and make light work of stiff, brittle and old hydraulic seals.

Modern-day hydraulic strip benches incorporate gland removal, piston nut removal, hydraulic disassembly and assembly of the rod into the barrel, hydraulic nut tightening and hydraulic nut loosening, testing and reporting all from the one machine

The safest way to remove large hydraulic cylinder piston/piston nuts from a rod assembly is by the use of a hydraulic disassembly bench that incorporates a hydraulic nut cracker. These are purpose-built and designed for hydraulic repair workshops that professionally rebuild hydraulic cylinders daily.

Honing of hydraulic cylinder barrels can be done by either manual hand honing or on a specialised hydraulic cylinder hone machine with the appropriate tooling and stones. Specialised hydraulic cylinder hones are large and require a fair level of operator knowledge the get the best performance and surface finish on the cylinder barrel.

To be able to reseal a cylinder most of the time it will need to be stripped down and the seals replaced. The main sealing of a hydraulic cylinder rod to the barrel is by either a v-pack, o ring, standard u-cup or energized u-cup seal.

There are also piston seals, wear rings, o rings and backups, glide bushes, buffer seals and other seals depending on the application, size, oil type, oil temperature and working conditions of the cylinder. Hydraulic seals can also be engineered and manufactured out of various different materials to suit specific applications.

The main point to consider is the safety of yourself and the people around you. Hydraulic cylinders can be an energy source and with modern hydraulic systems incorporating load holding (over centre) valves and hydraulic accumulators quite commonly, actuators (cylinders, motors, final drives) can become an outlet for stored energy under the right conditions.

An open-loop hydraulic system generally allows air to return back into the hydraulic reservoir and breath out through the breather cap during a standard test operation. A few operations of complete extension and retraction of the hydraulic cylinder should completely remove the air from the cylinder and lines.

Keep in mind If there is a really long run of hose/tube the air may not make it back to the hydraulic reservoir and may need to be manually exhausted from the system.

With a single-acting type ram (Hoists) like that found on a truck tipper and dog tipper trailers, these only have one port for the oil to enter and flow back to the hydraulic tank.

Air can get trapped inside and cause staggered operation or jumpy and jerky raising and lowering. This is due to atmospheric air we breathe being compressible. (hydraulic oil is not compressible)

This can be done by adapting to a hydraulic system and creating conditions similar to or the same as the cylinder was designed for. This is what we call bench testing a cylinder.

If the cylinder is bypassing internally the oil will be able to bypass around the piston and travel back to the hydraulic tank. This would cause the system to not be able to reach the maximum pressure on that circuit. This is called on machine testing.

Testing for bypass on a bench can be done by fully extending the cylinder, turn off the pump and then remove the retract hose. Once the retract hose has been removed turn on the pump and operate the valve to extend the cylinder. Look for oil bypassing the piston and coming out of the retract port.

Apply hydraulic pressure to the retract hose and if the cylinder rod is bypassing the rod will try to extend. This is due to the effective working area on the extend side of the piston being larger than the rod side. Equal hydraulic pressure in the system with the piston seals bypassing will cause the cylinder rod to extend.

(Take care not to run any part of your hand or body around any hoses, adaptors or cylinders while you are operating or testing as hydraulic fluid injection can occur if there is a leak.

This is caused by oil travelling at high velocity which can pierce through human skin and enter your bloodstream. This can cause serious injury and/or death so please take extra care when testing for leaks on any type of hydraulic component.

In a word yes you may be able to get the cylinder to move but the big advantage that hydraulic oil has over air is the working pressures and also the medium used to convey. Compressed air is just that, atmospheric air that has been compressed into a confined space and stored and directed for use.

Hydraulic oil, on the other hand, is not compressible therefore becomes a good medium to use for the transfer of energy. Hydraulic oil also acts as lubrication for metal components.

The components used for pneumatic (Air) system and a hydraulic (Oil) system are very different in there construction and design, therefore as a general rule cannot be interchanged for use on either system.

The main difference here is the working pressure of the two systems. Pneumatics generally run in the pressure range of 100-150 psi whereas a hydraulic system can run up to 10,000psi

Obviously, the construction of pneumatic cylinders and hydraulic cylinders is vastly different. If you take a close look at a pneumatic cylinder and of its construction, you will notice the material is usually aluminium.